Microsatellites Reveal a High Population Structure in Triatoma infestans from Chuquisaca, Bolivia

Facultad de Bioquímica, Universidad de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, Sucre, Bolivia.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (Impact Factor: 4.49). 02/2008; 2(3):e202. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000202
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT For Chagas disease, the most serious infectious disease in the Americas, effective disease control depends on elimination of vectors through spraying with insecticides. Molecular genetic research can help vector control programs by identifying and characterizing vector populations and then developing effective intervention strategies.
The population genetic structure of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the main vector of Chagas disease in Bolivia, was investigated using a hierarchical sampling strategy. A total of 230 adults and nymphs from 23 localities throughout the department of Chuquisaca in Southern Bolivia were analyzed at ten microsatellite loci. Population structure, estimated using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) to estimate F(ST) (infinite alleles model) and R(ST) (stepwise mutation model), was significant between western and eastern regions within Chuquisaca and between insects collected in domestic and peri-domestic habitats. Genetic differentiation at three different hierarchical geographic levels was significant, even in the case of adjacent households within a single locality (R(ST) = 0.14, F(ST) = 0.07). On the largest geographic scale, among five communities up to 100 km apart, R(ST) = 0.12 and F(ST) = 0.06. Cluster analysis combined with assignment tests identified five clusters within the five communities.
Some houses are colonized by insects from several genetic clusters after spraying, whereas other households are colonized predominately by insects from a single cluster. Significant population structure, measured by both R(ST) and F(ST), supports the hypothesis of poor dispersal ability and/or reduced migration of T. infestans. The high degree of genetic structure at small geographic scales, inferences from cluster analysis and assignment tests, and demographic data suggest reinfesting vectors are coming from nearby and from recrudescence (hatching of eggs that were laid before insecticide spraying). Suggestions for using these results in vector control strategies are made.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Chagas' disease in the Southern Cone of Latin America between the latitudes 10° S and 46° S. The long-term effectiveness of the control campaigns is greatly dependent upon the vector population structure. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes have been used in a number of T. infestans population genetic analyses. However, the maternally inherited markers as well as nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed until the present exhibited low or limited levels of variation. Analyses based on microsatellite markers strongly supported the existence of some type of stratification in T. infestans populations and supported the hypothesis of vector population recovery from survivors of the insecticide-treated areas, highlighting the value of population genetic analyses in assessing the effectiveness of Chagas' disease vector control programmes. Although phylogeographic studies have generally suggested a Bolivian Andean origin of T. infestans, they recovered two reciprocal monophyletic groups of T. infestans and Bolivian populations who were not basal as expected for an ancestral group. In addition, a non-Andean origin could not be excluded by mtDNA genealogies that included sylvatic bugs from Gran Chaco. On the other side, mitochondrial and microsatellite markers supported the hypothesis of two independent migration events of colonization and secondary contacts in southern South America. Since the phylogenetic analyses remain inconclusive, more sequences, not only from mitochondrial genes but also from nuclear genes, need to be examined.
    Current Genomics 08/2013; 14(5):316-323. DOI:10.2174/13892029113149990006 · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The persistence of Triatoma infestans and the continuous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Inter-Andean Valleys and in the Gran Chaco of Bolivia are of great significance. Coincidentally, it is in these regions the reach of the vector control strategies is limited, and reports of T. infestans resistance to insecticides, including in wild populations, have been issued. This study aims to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans from Bolivia, in order to better understand the extent of this relevant problem.Methods Susceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in nine, wild and domestic, populations of T. infestans from the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 ¿L) were topically applied in first instar nymphs (F1, five days old, fasting, weight 1.2¿±¿0.2 mg). Dose response results were analyzed with PROBIT version 2, determining the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios (RR). Qualitative tests were also performed.ResultsThree wild T. infestans dark morph samples of Chaco from the Santa Cruz Department were susceptible to deltamethrinwithRR50of <2, and 100% mortality to the diagnostic dose (DD); however, two domestic populations from the same region were less susceptible than the susceptibility reference lineage (RR50 of 4.21 and 5.04 respectively and 93% DD). The domestic population of Villa Montes from the Chaco of the Tarija Department presented high levels of resistance (RR50 of 129.12 and 0% DD). Moreover, the domestic populations from the Valleys of the Cochabamba Department presented resistance (RR50 of 8.49 and 62% DD), the wild populations were less susceptible than SRL and T. infestans dark morph populations (RR50¿<¿5).Conclusion The elimination of T. infestans with pyrethroid insecticides in Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, and its drastic reduction in large parts of Paraguay and Argentina, clearly indicates that pyrethroid resistance was very uncommon in non-Andean regions. The pyrethroid susceptibility of non-Andean T. infestans dark morph population, and the resistance towards it, of Andean T. infestans wild and domestic populations, indicates that the Andean populations from Bolivia are less susceptible.
    Parasites & Vectors 11/2014; 7(1):497. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-9414691321834135 · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Triatoma infestans, the major vector of Chagas disease south of the Amazon in South America, has a large distribution of wild populations, contrary to what has previously been stated. These populations have been suspected of being the source of reinfestation of human habitats and could impede the full success of vector control campaigns. This study examined gene flow between intra-peridomestic populations and wild populations collected in the surround areas in three Andean localities in Bolivia. The populations were defined according to temporal, ecological, and spatial criteria. After DNA extraction from the legs of each insect, the samples were analyzed using seven microsatellite markers. First, the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected an absence of differentiation between wild and intra-peridomestic populations, although strong structuring was observed between the populations within each environment. Then for some populations, the Bayesian method of assignment to inferred populations showed very similar assignment patterns of the members of wild or intra-peridomestic populations in each locality. Finally, the detection of the first-generation migrants within the different populations provided evidence of insect displacement from the wild to the intra-peridomestic environment. This result indicates that, after control campaigns in the Andes, controlling this new paradigm of vector transmission risk stemming from the invasion of human habitats by wild populations of T. infestans requires long-term maintenance of public monitoring to keep the risk at a minimal level. Since wild populations of T. infestans have also been detected elsewhere in Argentina, Paraguay, and Chile, there is an urgent need to take these populations into account in future monitoring of Chagas disease transmission.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80786. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080786 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014