Validity and reliability of a school travel survey.
ABSTRACT Despite the growing interest in active (ie, nonmotorized) travel to and from school, few studies have explored the measurement properties to assess active travel. We evaluated the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire with a sample of young schoolchildren to assess travel to and from school, including mode, travel companion, and destination after school.
To assess test-retest reliability, 54 children age 8 to 11 years completed a travel survey on 2 consecutive school days. To assess criterion validity, 28 children age 8 to 10 years and their parents completed a travel survey on 5 consecutive weekdays.
Test-retest reliability of all questions indicated substantial agreement. The questions on mode of transport, where you will go after school, and how you will get there also displayed substantial agreement between parental and child reports.
For this population, a questionnaire completed by school-age children to assess travel to and from school, including mode, travel companion, and destination after school, was reliably collected and indicated validity for most items when compared with parental reports.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Identify non-distance factors related to children's active transport (AT) to school, including parental, home, and environment characteristics. Understanding the factors related to children's AT to school, beyond distance to school, could inform interventions to increase AT and children's overall physical activity. Study design: Participants were in the Neighborhood Impact on Kids Study, a longitudinal, observational cohort study of children aged 6-11 and their parents in King County, WA and San Diego County, CA between 2007 and 2009. Parents reported frequency and mode of child transport to school, perceived neighbourhood, home and family environments, parental travel behaviours, and sociodemographics. Methods: Children living less than a 20 minute walk to school were in this analysis. Children classified as active transporters (walked/bicycled to or from school at least once per week) were compared with those not using AT as often. Results: Children using AT were older and had parents who reported themselves using active transport. Having a family rule that restricts the child to stay within sight of the parent or home and more parent working hours were related to lower odds of a child using AT. Conclusions: Children's AT to school is associated with parental AT to work and other locations. Interventions should be considered that enable whole family AT, ameliorate safety concerns and decrease the need for parental supervision, such as walking school buses.Public Health 07/2014; 128(7). DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2014.05.004 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Previous systematic reviews indicate that active transportation (AT; the use of non-motorized travel modes such as walking, running and cycling) is an important source of daily physical activity (PA). However, no previous systematic review has examined travel behaviours among African children and youth or the psychometric properties of measurement tools used among children and youth worldwide.Methods Studies on AT among African children and youth (aged 5¿17 years) were identified through 1) the MEDLINE and Embase databases; 2) manual searches of six African journals that are not indexed in these databases; and 3) the articles included in a previous systematic review on PA among children and youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Second, literature on the psychometric properties of measurement tools for children and youth was searched using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycInfo, SportDiscus, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments databases. Study quality was assessed with a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist.ResultsTwenty studies reported original data on AT among African children and youth. This evidence suggests that rates of AT to/from school are lower in urban areas and in youth attending higher SES schools. Two population-based studies reported rates of AT ranging between 19.8% and 66.6% in multiple countries. Studies conducted in Africa seldom examined non-school travel and only one reported data on the psychometric properties of their measures of travel behaviours. Nineteen studies conducted predominantly in high-income countries provided psychometric data. Child and parent reports were used in 17 studies, and these measures generally showed substantial to almost perfect test-retest reliability and convergent validity for school trips. Limited information was available regarding non-school trips. Objective measures of travel behaviours have been used much less often, and further validity and reliability assessments are warranted.Conclusion These findings emphasize a need for more research examining travel behaviours among African children and youth, particularly for non-school travel. Further research is needed to develop valid and reliable measures of non-school travel and to examine their psychometric properties in the African context. These measures could then be used to evaluate AT promotion interventions.International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 10/2014; 11(1):129. DOI:10.1186/s12966-014-0129-5 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Promoting daily routine physical activities, such as active travel to school, may have important health implications. Practitioners and policy makers must understand the variety of factors that influence whether or not a child uses active school travel. Several reviews have identified both inhibitors and promoters of active school travel, but few studies have combined these putative characteristics in one analysis. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between elementary school children's active school travel and variables hypothesized as correlates (demographics, physical environment, perceived barriers and norms).International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 05/2014; 11(1):61. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-11-61 · 3.68 Impact Factor