Circulating concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal fragment (NT) of its prohormone (proBNP) are related to cardiac function and have emerged as clinically useful tools for the diagnosis of heart failure and for the estimation of prognosis in patients with heart failure and acute coronary syndromes. Recent studies have also convincingly documented that both BNP and NT-proBNP are powerful, independent prognostic indicators in patients with stable coronary artery disease. The associations are strongest for the end-points of death and heart failure, whereas the association with cardiac ischemic events is weaker or nonexistent, after adjustment for confounding factors. Importantly, BNP and NT-proBNP appear to provide incremental prognostic information to conventional risk factors, including markers of ventricular function and ischemia. Data documenting that BNP or NT-proBNP measurements can be used to guide treatment decisions in patients with stable coronary artery disease are still lacking.
"Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system in the left ventricle appears to be an important mechanism for the induction of elevated BNP levels in chronic ischemic HF (4). BNP gene expression levels are upregulated in the ventricular wall by acute myocardial hypoxia, resulting in augmented plasma concentrations of BNP and proBNP (25,26). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used as a prognostic biomarker for patients with heart failure (HF) in clinical practice, however, the correlation between BNP levels and the prognosis of HF in patients with reserved left ventricular systolic function (RLVSF) is not clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the added value of BNP in the prognosis of HF patients with RLVSF. Inpatients with cardiovascular disease (mean age, 65.7 years; male, 790; female, 625) admitted to the Division of Cardiology at Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University (Shanghai, China) between June 2006 and December 2009 underwent follow-up examinations. Plasma BNP levels were analyzed and measurements of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were performed by echocardiography. Evaluations of the patients with HF were performed according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification system. The duration of the follow-up period ranged between 21 and 63 months (average duration, 35.8 months) and key events included cardiovascular mortality, readmission due to cardiovascular disease or mortality due to other reasons. Survival times decreased with increasing BNP levels in all the follow-up patients (Spearman's ρ, -0.1877; P<0.0001). Among the 1,415 patients, 1,312 underwent echocardiographic detection. A total of 395 patients with NYHA classes II-IV and a LVEF ≥45% were selected. The incidence of compound endpoint events was significantly higher in the patients that had BNP levels of >100 pg/ml when compared with the patients that had BNP levels of ≤100 pg/ml (37.07 vs. 23.93%; relative risk, 1.55); consequently the survival times were significantly reduced (P=0.0039). A negative correlation was identified between the BNP levels and the survival times in these patients (Spearman's ρ, -0.1738; P=0.0005). These results indicated that the levels of BNP may be used to predict the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease. The prognoses of patients with higher BNP levels were worse compared with the patients with lower BNP levels. Furthermore, significant correlations were confirmed in the HF patients with RLVSF.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 06/2014; 7(6):1506-1512. DOI:10.3892/etm.2014.1635 · 1.27 Impact Factor
"Importantly, BNP and NT-proBNP appear to provide incremental prognostic information to conventional risk factors, including markers of ventricular function and ischemia. Data documenting that BNP or NT-proBNP measurements can be used to guide treatment decisions in patients with stable coronary artery disease, however, is still lacking. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are hormones which are mainly secreted from heart and have important natriuretic and kaliuretic properties. There are four different groups NPs identified till date [atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and dendroaspis natriuretic peptide, a D-type natriuretic peptide (DNP)], each with its own characteristic functions. The N-terminal part of the prohormone of BNP, NT-proBNP, is secreted alongside BNP and has been documented to have important diagnostic value in heart failure. NPs or their fragments have been subjected to scientific observation for their diagnostic value and this has yielded important epidemiological data for interpretation. However, little progress has been made in harnessing the therapeutic potential of these cardiac hormones.
"Both in coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) the levels of plasma B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) have been shown to be elevated compared to healthy controls  . Furthermore, BNPs have established their role in diagnosing acute heart failure   and have been shown to be strong prognostic markers for mortality in CAD   and CHF patients , with and without renal insufficiency    . Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel biomarker reflecting damage to renal tubular cells, with elevated levels in urine and plasma from two hours onwards after acute insult to the kidneys . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined association of inducible myocardial perfusion defects with cardiorenal biomarkers, and of diminished left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with kidney injury marker plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Patients undergoing nuclear myocardial perfusion stress imaging were divided into 2 groups. Biomarkers were analyzed pre- and poststress testing. Compared to the patients in the low ischemia group (n = 16), the patients in the high ischemia group (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater rise in cardiac biomarkers plasma BNP, NT-proBNP and cTnI. Subjects were also categorized based on pre- or poststress test detectable plasma NGAL. With stress, the group with no detectable NGAL had a segmental defect score 4.2 compared to 8.2 (P = .06) in the detectable NGAL group, and 0.9 vs. 3.8 (P = .03) at rest. BNP rose with stress to a greater degree in patients with detectable NGAL (10.2 vs. 3.5 pg/mL, P = .03). LVEF at rest and with stress was significantly lower in the detectable NGAL group; 55.8 versus 65.0 (P = .03) and 55.1 vs. 63.8 (P = .04), respectively. Myocardial perfusion defects associate with biomarkers of cardiac stress, and detectable plasma NGAL with significantly lower LVEF, suggesting a specific heart-kidney link.
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