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Peripherally administered human umbilical cord blood cells reduce parenchymal and vascular beta-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer mice.

Rashid Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology, Silver Child Development Center, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33613, USA.
Stem Cells and Development (Impact Factor: 4.2). 07/2008; 17(3):423-39. DOI: 10.1089/scd.2008.0018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Modulation of immune/inflammatory responses by diverse strategies including amyloid-beta (Abeta) immunization, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and manipulation of microglial activation states has been shown to reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology and cognitive deficits in AD transgenic mouse models. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) have unique immunomodulatory potential. We wished to test whether these cells might alter AD-like pathology after infusion into the PSAPP mouse model of AD. Here, we report a marked reduction in Abeta levels/beta-amyloid plaques and associated astrocytosis following multiple low-dose infusions of HUCBCs. HUCBC infusions also reduced cerebral vascular Abeta deposits in the Tg2576 AD mouse model. Interestingly, these effects were associated with suppression of the CD40-CD40L interaction, as evidenced by decreased circulating and brain soluble CD40L (sCD40L), elevated systemic immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels, attenuated CD40L-induced inflammatory responses, and reduced surface expression of CD40 on microglia. Importantly, deficiency in CD40 abolishes the effect of HUCBCs on elevated plasma Abeta levels. Moreover, microglia isolated from HUCBC-infused PSAPP mice demonstrated increased phagocytosis of Abeta. Furthermore, sera from HUCBC-infused PSAPP mice significantly increased microglial phagocytosis of the Abeta1-42 peptide while inhibiting interferon-gammainduced microglial CD40 expression. Increased microglial phagocytic activity in this scenario was inhibited by addition of recombinant CD40L protein. These data suggest that HUCBC infusion mitigates AD-like pathology by disrupting CD40L activity.

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