Leptin, an adipose-derived hormone, has been implicated in several physiological processes involving the hippocampus. However, the role of leptin in adult hippocampal neurogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that leptin regulates neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult mice as well as in cultured adult hippocampal progenitor cells. Chronic administration of leptin to adult mice increased cell proliferation without significant effects on the differentiation and the survival of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus. The expression of the long form leptin receptor, LepRb, was detected in hippocampal progenitor cells by reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Leptin treatment also increased proliferation of cultured adult hippocampal progenitor cells. Analysis of signal transduction pathways revealed that leptin stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and STAT3 but not ERK1/2. Furthermore, pre-treating the cells with specific inhibitors of Akt or STAT3 attenuated leptin-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results support a role for leptin in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and suggest the involvement of the Akt and STAT3 signaling pathways in mediating the actions of leptin on neurogenesis.
"mice increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (Garza et al. 2008). Epidemiological studies also show an inverse relationship between leptin levels and risk of developing dementia of the Alzheimer type (Lieb et al. 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the subjective perception of examination stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p < 0.01) positively with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.
"survival and neurogenesis (Garza et al., 2008; Moon et al., 2009; Spasic et al., 2009; Decressac et al., 2010). In recent experiments we showed that NPY infusion in the basolateral amygdala normalized the anxiety of the animals subjected to inescapable footshock (IFS) (Hendriksen et al., 2012). "
"Irf3 and Irf7 have been shown to induce type 1 interferons, which subsequently stimulate Jak-Stat signal transduction pathways leading to upregulated transcription of various interferon-stimulated genes [54–56]. Leptin and its receptor, Lepr, have been shown to be involved in leptin-dependent adult hippocampal neurogenesis  and mediated neuroprotection of dopaminergic cells via activation of Jak-Stat, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) signaling pathways in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease . The role of the Jak-Stat signaling pathway in the brain, however, is unclear. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome (DS) has partial triplication of mouse chromosome 16 (MMU16), which is partially homologous to human chromosome 21. These mice develop various neuropathological features identified in DS individuals. We analysed the effect of partial triplication of the MMU16 segment on global gene expression in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of Ts1Cje mice at 4 time-points: postnatal day (P)1, P15, P30 and P84.
Gene expression profiling identified a total of 317 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), selected from various spatiotemporal comparisons, between Ts1Cje and disomic mice. A total of 201 DEGs were identified from the cerebellum, 129 from the hippocampus and 40 from the cerebral cortex. Of these, only 18 DEGs were identified as common to all three brain regions and 15 were located in the triplicated segment. We validated 8 selected DEGs from the cerebral cortex (Brwd1, Donson, Erdr1, Ifnar1, Itgb8, Itsn1, Mrps6 and Tmem50b), 18 DEGs from the cerebellum (Atp5o, Brwd1, Donson, Dopey2, Erdr1, Hmgn1, Ifnar1, Ifnar2, Ifngr2, Itgb8, Itsn1, Mrps6, Paxbp1, Son, Stat1, Tbata, Tmem50b and Wrb) and 11 DEGs from the hippocampus (Atp5o, Brwd1, Cbr1, Donson, Erdr1, Itgb8, Itsn1, Morc3, Son, Tmem50b and Wrb). Functional clustering analysis of the 317 DEGs identified interferon-related signal transduction as the most significantly dysregulated pathway in Ts1Cje postnatal brain development. RT-qPCR and western blotting analysis showed both Ifnar1 and Stat1 were over-expressed in P84 Ts1Cje cerebral cortex and cerebellum as compared to wild type littermates.
These findings suggest over-expression of interferon receptor may lead to over-stimulation of Jak-Stat signaling pathway which may contribute to the neuropathology in Ts1Cje or DS brain. The role of interferon mediated activation or inhibition of signal transduction including Jak-Stat signaling pathway has been well characterized in various biological processes and disease models including DS but information pertaining to the role of this pathway in the development and function of the Ts1Cje or DS brain remains scarce and warrants further investigation.
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