BIG-2 mediates olfactory axon convergence to target glomeruli.
ABSTRACT Olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor converge axons onto a few topographically fixed glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, leading to establishment of the odor map. Here, we report that BIG-2/contactin-4, an axonal glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in a subpopulation of mouse olfactory sensory neurons. A mosaic pattern of glomerular arrangement is observed with strongly BIG-2-positive, weakly positive, and negative axon terminals in the olfactory bulb, which is overlapping but not identical with those of Kirrel2 and ephrin-A5. There is a close correlation between the BIG-2 expression level and the odorant receptor choice in individual sensory neurons. In BIG-2-deficient mice, olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor frequently innervate multiple glomeruli at ectopic locations. These results suggest that BIG-2 is one of the axon guidance molecules crucial for the formation and maintenance of functional odor map in the olfactory bulb.
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ABSTRACT: Activity-dependent survival of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) may allow animals to tune their olfactory systems to match their odor environment. Activity-dependent genes should play important roles in this process, motivating experiments to identify them. Both unilateral naris occlusion of mice for 6 days and genetic silencing of OSNs decreased S100A5, Lrrc3b, Kirrel2, Slc17a6, Rasgrp4, Pcp4l1, Plcxd3, and Kcnn2 while increasing Kirrel3. Naris occlusion also decreased Eml5, Ptprn, and Nphs1. OSN number was unchanged and stress-response mRNAs were unaffected after 6 days of naris occlusion. This leaves odor stimulation as the most likely cause of differential abundance of these mRNAs, but through a mechanism that is slow or indirect for most because 30-40min of odor stimulation increased only 3 of 11 mRNAs decreased by naris occlusion: S100A5, Lrrc3b, and Kirrel2. Odorant receptor (OR) mRNAs were significantly more variable than the average mRNA, consistent with difficulty in reliably detecting changes in these mRNAs after 6 days of naris occlusion. One OR mRNA, Olfr855, was consistently decreased, however. These results suggest that the latency from the cessation of odor stimulation to effects on activity-dependent OSN survival must be a week or more in juvenile mice.Chemical Senses 04/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During cell stress, the transcription and translation of immediate early genes are prioritized, while most other messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are stored away in stress granules or degraded in processing bodies (P-bodies). TIA-1 is an mRNA-binding protein that needs to translocate from the nucleus to seed the formation of stress granules in the cytoplasm. Because other stress granule components such as TDP-43, FUS, ATXN2, SMN, MAPT, HNRNPA2B1, and HNRNPA1 are crucial for the motor neuron diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and for the frontotemporal dementia (FTD), here we studied mouse nervous tissue to identify mRNAs with selective dependence on Tia1 deletion. Transcriptome profiling with oligonucleotide microarrays in comparison of spinal cord and cerebellum, together with independent validation in quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblots demonstrated several strong and consistent dysregulations. In agreement with previously reported TIA1 knock down effects, cell cycle and apoptosis regulators were affected markedly with expression changes up to +2-fold, exhibiting increased levels for Cdkn1a, Ccnf, and Tprkb vs. decreased levels for Bid and Inca1 transcripts. Novel and surprisingly strong expression alterations were detected for fat storage and membrane trafficking factors, with prominent +3-fold upregulations of Plin4, Wdfy1, Tbc1d24, and Pnpla2 vs. a -2.4-fold downregulation of Cntn4 transcript, encoding an axonal membrane adhesion factor with established haploinsufficiency. In comparison, subtle effects on the RNA processing machinery included up to 1.2-fold upregulations of Dcp1b and Tial1. The effect on lipid dynamics factors is noteworthy, since also the gene deletion of Tardbp (encoding TDP-43) and Atxn2 led to fat metabolism phenotypes in mouse. In conclusion, genetic ablation of the stress granule nucleator TIA-1 has a novel major effect on mRNAs encoding lipid homeostasis factors in the brain, similar to the fasting effect.Neurogenetics 03/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
Dataset: 2009 Hong Nat. Neurosci. 12