BIG-2 Mediates Olfactory Axon Convergence to Target Glomeruli
ABSTRACT Olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor converge axons onto a few topographically fixed glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, leading to establishment of the odor map. Here, we report that BIG-2/contactin-4, an axonal glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in a subpopulation of mouse olfactory sensory neurons. A mosaic pattern of glomerular arrangement is observed with strongly BIG-2-positive, weakly positive, and negative axon terminals in the olfactory bulb, which is overlapping but not identical with those of Kirrel2 and ephrin-A5. There is a close correlation between the BIG-2 expression level and the odorant receptor choice in individual sensory neurons. In BIG-2-deficient mice, olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor frequently innervate multiple glomeruli at ectopic locations. These results suggest that BIG-2 is one of the axon guidance molecules crucial for the formation and maintenance of functional odor map in the olfactory bulb.
- SourceAvailable from: Jessica A Osterhout[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mammalian eye-to-brain pathway includes more than 20 parallel circuits, each consisting of precise long-range connections between specific sets of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and target structures in the brain. The mechanisms that drive assembly of these parallel connections and the functional implications of their specificity remain unresolved. Here we show that in the absence of contactin 4 (CNTN4) or one of its binding partners, amyloid precursor protein (APP), a subset of direction-selective RGCs fail to target the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT)-the accessory optic system (AOS) target controlling horizontal image stabilization. Conversely, ectopic expression of CNTN4 biases RGCs to arborize in the NOT, and that process also requires APP. Our data reveal critical and novel roles for CNTN4/APP in promoting target-specific axon arborization, and they highlight the importance of this process for functional development of a behaviorally relevant parallel visual pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Neuron 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.04.005 · 15.98 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The neural cell-adhesion molecules contactin 4, contactin 5 and contactin 6 are involved in brain development, and disruptions in contactin genes may confer increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We describe a co-culture of rat cortical neurons and HEK293 cells overexpressing and delivering the secreted forms of rat contactin 4-6. We quantified their effects on the length and branching of neurites. Contactin 4-6 effects were different depending on the contactin member and duration of co-culture. At 4 days in culture, contactin 4 and -6 increased the length of neurites, while contactin 5 increased the number of roots. Up to 8 days in culture, contactin 6 progressively increased the length of neurites while contactin 5 was more efficient on neurite branching. We studied the molecular sites of interaction between human contactin 4, -5 or -6 and the human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Gamma (PTPRG), a contactin partner, by modeling their 3D structures. As compared to contactin 4, we observed differences in the Ig2 and Ig3 domains of contactin 5 and -6 with the appearance of an omega loop that could adopt three distinct conformations. However, interactive residues between human contactin 4-6 and PTPRG were strictly conserved. We did not observe any differences in PTPRG binding on contactin 5 and -6 either. Our data suggest that the differential contactin effects on neurite outgrowth do not result from distinct interactions with PTPRG. A better understanding of the contactin cellular properties should help elucidate their roles in ASD.03/2013; 2(3):324-34. DOI:10.1242/bio.20133343
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) axons coalesce into specific glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB) according to their odorant receptor (OR) expression. Several guidance molecules enhance the coalescence of homotypic OSN projections, in an OR-specific- and neural-activity-dependent manner. However, the mechanism by which homotypic OSN axons are organized into glomeruli is unsolved. We previously reported that the clustered protocadherin-α (Pcdh-α) family of diverse cadherin-related molecules plays roles in the coalescence and elimination of homotypic OSN axons throughout development. Here we showed that the elimination of small ectopic homotypic glomeruli required the constitutive expression of a Pcdh-α isoform and Pcdh-α's cytoplasmic region, but not OR specificity or neural activity. These results suggest that Pcdh-α proteins provide a cytoplasmic signal to regulate repulsive activity for homotypic OSN axons independently of OR expression and neural activity. The counterbalancing effect of Pcdh-α proteins for the axonal coalescence mechanisms mediated by other olfactory guidance molecules indicate a possible mechanism for the organization of homotypic OSN axons into glomeruli during development.Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 10/2012; 5:97. DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2012.00097