Reversible infliximab-related lymphoproliferative disorder associated with Epstein-Barr virus in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT A 63-year-old woman with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) had been treated with methotrexate and prednisolone. She developed cervical lymph node swelling 30 months after the initiation of infliximab therapy. A computed tomography revealed cervical and mediastinal lymph node swelling and multiple nodules (up to 13 mm in diameter) in the lungs. A lymph node biopsy showed infiltration of numerous Hodgkin-like and Reed-Sternberg-like cells. Immunohistological studies showed that these cells were positive for CD15, CD30, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein. In site hybridization revealed the presence of EBV RNA in the nuclei of these cells. EBV DNA was detected in the biopsy specimen by southern blot analysis. She was diagnosed as having EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). Immunodeficiency-associated LPD related with infliximab therapy was considered. Cessation of infliximab therapy only led to dramatic regression of LPD. This case illustrates that EBV-associated LPDs can occur as part of infliximab adverse effects in patients with RA.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for malignant lymphomas. Both conditions display a familial aggregation, and there are reports of RA and malignant lymphomas occurring in the same families. This study was undertaken to determine the risk of malignant lymphomas in first-degree relatives of RA patients, in order to investigate whether the increased risk of malignant lymphomas in RA could be due to genetic or environmental risk factors common to both conditions, rather than being a consequence of the rheumatic disease. Using Swedish nationwide and population-based registers, we identified 76,527 patients hospitalized with RA in 1964-1999 and 70,290 first-degree relatives of a subset of these patients. These subjects were followed up for more than 3 decades, and information on cancer occurrence was recorded. Patients with RA had a significantly increased risk of malignant lymphomas (535 cases; standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 2.00, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.83-2.17), which was apparent for up to 2 decades of followup. Among the first-degree relatives without RA, no increased risk of malignant lymphomas was found overall, although modest and nonsignificantly elevated risk estimates were observed in subgroups. With respect to childhood cancer (0-14 years of age), we observed an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma (5 cases; SIR 3.18, 95% CI 1.03-7.42). Patients with RA are at a markedly, but possibly time-limited, increased risk for malignant lymphomas. There is little to suggest a prominent role for coinherited or common environmental risk factors in malignant lymphomas arising in the context of RA. Instead, lymphomas complicating RA appear to be a direct consequence of the inflammation or its treatment.Arthritis & Rheumatology 05/2003; 48(4):963-70. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To ascertain the relationship between anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy, methotrexate (MTX), and the risk of lymphoma in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This report updates our previous report during 29,314 person-years of followup. Participants in the National Data Bank for Rheumatic Diseases (NDB) longitudinal study of long-term outcomes of RA completed semiannual questionnaires from 1998 through 2005, during 89,710 person-years of followup. Lymphoma reports were validated by medical records. The association between lymphoma and treatment was investigated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for severity and demographic covariates. Of the 19,591 participants, 55.3% received biologic agents and 68.0% received MTX while enrolled in the NDB. The lymphoma incidence rate was 105.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 86.6-129.5) per 100,000 person-years of exposure. Compared with the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results) lymphoma database, the standardized incidence ratio was 1.8 (95% CI 1.5-2.2). The odds ratio (OR) for lymphoma in patients who received anti-TNF therapy compared with patients who did not receive anti-TNF therapy was 1.0 (95% CI 0.6-1.8 [P = 0.875]). The OR for lymphoma in patients who received anti-TNF plus MTX therapy compared with patients who received MTX treatment alone was 1.1 (95% CI 0.6-2.0 [P = 0.710]). Infliximab and etanercept considered individually also were not associated with a risk of lymphoma. In a study of lymphoma in 19,591 RA patients over 89,710 person-years of followup, which included exposure to anti-TNF therapy in 10,815 patients, we did not observe evidence for an increase in the incidence of lymphoma among patients who received anti-TNF therapy.Arthritis & Rheumatology 06/2007; 56(5):1433-9. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Twenty-two Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) without predisposing immunodeficiencies were evaluated clinically and pathologically. All patients were Japanese and negative for anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody. They were all more than 60 years old with a median age of 75.5 years. Eighteen (82%) patients showed extranodal involvement. Biopsied specimens contained variable numbers of centroblasts, immunoblasts, and Reed-Sternberg-like giant cells often with necrosis and an angiocentric pattern. The 13 cases showing polymorphous composition and inflammatory background were categorized as polymorphic LPD subtype. The other nine cases contained diffuse proliferative lesions of large lymphoid cells and were categorized as large cell lymphoma subtype. Tumor cells expressed CD20 and/or CD79a, and in situ hybridization showed them to be associated with Epstein-Barr virus. LMP1 was detected in all cases and EBNA2 in seven. Eighteen patients initially received combination chemotherapy, and 12 achieved complete remission. However, six patients were refractory to chemotherapy and four patients with complete remission later relapsed. Eight of the 18 patients who received chemotherapy showed an aggressive disease course within a year after the diagnosis. There was a significant difference in prognosis between the group with polymorphic LPDs and the one with large cell lymphomas (p = 0.003). Although the disease profile of the 22 cases was analogous to that of immunodeficiency-associated B-cell LPDs, none of the patients showed evidence of underlying immunodeficiency-related diseases. These findings suggest that Epstein-Barr virus-associated LPD without immunodeficiency mainly occurs in elderly patients. Further investigations are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of this disease and to determine the optimal treatment strategy.American Journal of Surgical Pathology 02/2003; 27(1):16-26. · 4.87 Impact Factor