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Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.46). 06/2008; 135(9):1625-34. DOI: 10.1242/dev.015495
Source: PubMed


The effects of Wnt7b on lung development were examined using a conditional Wnt7b-null mouse. Wnt7b-null lungs are markedly hypoplastic, yet display largely normal patterning and cell differentiation. In contrast to findings in prior hypomorphic Wnt7b models, we find decreased replication of both developing epithelium and mesenchyme, without abnormalities of vascular smooth muscle development. We further demonstrate that Wnt7b signals to neighboring cells to activate both autocrine and paracrine canonical Wnt signaling cascades. In contrast to results from hypomorphic models, we show that Wnt7b modulates several important signaling pathways in the lung. Together, these cascades result in the coordinated proliferation of adjacent epithelial and mesenchymal cells to stimulate organ growth with few alterations in differentiation and patterning.

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Available from: Qiao Zhou, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "Functions of trophic macrophages that support organogenesis include apoptotic clearance of cellular debris associated with tissue remodelling [47], regulation of angiogenesis through the production of angiogenic factors [48,49] and by physically directing vascular development [50]. Macrophages act as potent effector cells producing a range of important trophic mediators such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) [51], wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7b (Wnt7b) [52], transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) [53] and MMP9 [54], which are involved in epithelial proliferation and matrix reorganisation. These processes are all essential in lung development, particularly in alveolarisation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Lung immaturity due to preterm birth is a significant complication affecting neonatal health. Despite the detrimental effects of supplemental oxygen on alveolar formation, it remains an important treatment for infants with respiratory distress. Macrophages are traditionally associated with the propagation of inflammatory insults, however increased appreciation of their diversity has revealed essential functions in development and regeneration.Methods Macrophage regulatory cytokine Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) was investigated in a model of neonatal hyperoxia exposure, with the aim of promoting macrophages associated with alveologenesis to protect/rescue lung development and function. Neonatal mice were exposed to normoxia (21% oxygen) or hyperoxia (Hyp; 65% oxygen); and administered CSF-1 (0.5 ¿g/g, daily¿×¿5) or vehicle (PBS) in two treatment regimes; 1) after hyperoxia from postnatal day (P)7-11, or 2) concurrently with five days of hyperoxia from P1-5. Lung structure, function and macrophages were assessed using alveolar morphometry, barometric whole-body plethysmography and flow cytometry.Results and discussionSeven days of hyperoxia resulted in an 18% decrease in body weight and perturbation of lung structure and function. In regime 1, growth restriction persisted in the Hyp¿+¿PBS and Hyp¿+¿CSF-1 groups, although perturbations in respiratory function were resolved by P35. CSF-1 increased CSF-1R+/F4/80+ macrophage number by 34% at P11 compared to Hyp¿+¿PBS, but was not associated with growth or lung structural rescue. In regime 2, five days of hyperoxia did not cause initial growth restriction in the Hyp¿+¿PBS and Hyp¿+¿CSF-1 groups, although body weight was decreased at P35 with CSF-1. CSF-1 was not associated with increased macrophages, or with functional perturbation in the adult. Overall, CSF-1 did not rescue the growth and lung defects associated with hyperoxia in this model; however, an increase in CSF-1R+ macrophages was not associated with an exacerbation of lung injury. The trophic functions of macrophages in lung development requires further elucidation in order to explore macrophage modulation as a strategy for promoting lung maturation.
    Respiratory Research 09/2014; 15(1):110. DOI:10.1186/s12931-014-0110-5 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, one of its downstream signaling targets, β-catenin, has also been localized histochemically in FF (Chilosi et al. 2003). Wnt7B is an important signaling glycopeptide that coordinates proliferation of adjacent epithelium and mesenchymal cells (Rajagopal et al. 2008) and regulates vascular growth during early lung development (Shu et al. 2002). Accordingly, it has been proposed to have a potentially significant impact on the progression of IPF in the adult lung (Morrisey 2003; Meuten et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of signaling ligands contributes significantly to lung development and maintenance in the adult. FGF9 is involved in control of epithelial branching and mesenchymal proliferation and expansion in developing lungs. However, its activity and expression in the normal adult lung and by epithelial and interstitial cells in fibroproliferative diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are unknown. Tissue samples from normal organ donor human lungs and those of a cohort of patients with mild to severe IPF were sectioned and stained for the immunolocalization of FGF9. In normal lungs, FGF9 was confined to smooth muscle surrounding airways, alveolar ducts and sacs, and blood vessels. In addition to these same sites, lungs of IPF patients expressed FGF9 in a population of myofibroblasts within fibroblastic foci, hypertrophic and hyperplastic epithelium of airways and alveoli, and smooth muscle cells surrounding vessels embedded in thickened interstitium. The results demonstrate that FGF9 protein increased in regions of active cellular hyperplasia, metaplasia, and fibrotic expansion of IPF lungs, and in isolated human lung fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1 and/or overexpressing Wnt7B. The cellular distribution and established biologic activity of FGF9 make it a potentially strong candidate for contributing to the progression of IPF.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 06/2013; 61(9). DOI:10.1369/0022155413497366 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    • "Defective pulmonary phagocytosis in the phosphatidylerine receptor (psr)−/− mutant mouse is associated with impaired removal of apoptotic cells during development, which in turn results in solid lungs devoid of alveoli [25]. Macrophages in the lung are also sources of trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 [26] and wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt)7b [27], both of which are important regulators in lung development. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Macrophages are traditionally associated with inflammation and host defence, however a greater understanding of macrophage heterogeneity is revealing their essential roles in non-immune functions such as development, homeostasis and regeneration. In organs including the brain, kidney, mammary gland and pancreas, macrophages reside in large numbers and provide essential regulatory functions that shape organ development and maturation. However, the role of macrophages in lung development and the potential implications of macrophage modulation in the promotion of lung maturation have not yet been ascertained. Methods: Embryonic day (E)12.5 mouse lungs were cultured as explants and macrophages associated with branching morphogenesis were visualised by wholemount immunofluorescence microscopy. Postnatal lung development and the correlation with macrophage number and phenotype were examined using Colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Csf1r-EGFP) reporter mice. Structural histological examination was complemented with whole-body plethysmography assessment of postnatal lung functional maturation over time.Flow cytometry, real-time (q)PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to characterise macrophage number, phenotype and localisation in the lung during postnatal development. To assess the impact of developmental macrophage modulation, CSF-1 was administered to neonatal mice at postnatal day (P)1, 2 and 3, and lung macrophage number and phenotype were assessed at P5. EGFP transgene expression and in situ hybridisation was performed to assess CSF-1R location in the developing lung. Results: Macrophages in embryonic lungs were abundant and densely located within branch points during branching morphogenesis. During postnatal development, structural and functional maturation of the lung was associated with an increase in lung macrophage number. In particular, the period of alveolarisation from P14-21 was associated with increased number of Csf1r-EGFP+ macrophages and upregulated expression of Arginase 1 (Arg1), Mannose receptor 1 (Mrc1) and Chemokine C-C motif ligand 17 (Ccl17), indicative of an M2 or tissue remodelling macrophage phenotype. Administration of CSF-1 to neonatal mice increased trophic macrophages during development and was associated with increased expression of the M2-associated gene Found in inflammatory zone (Fizz)1 and the growth regulator Insulin-like growth factor (Igf)1. The effects of CSF-1 were identified as macrophage-mediated, as the CSF-1R was found to be exclusively expressed on interstitial myeloid cells. Conclusions: This study identifies the presence of CSF-1R+ M2-polarised macrophages localising to sites of branching morphogenesis and increasing in number during the alveolarisation stage of normal lung development. Improved understanding of the role of macrophages in lung developmental regulation has clinical relevance for addressing neonatal inflammatory perturbation of development and highlights macrophage modulation as a potential intervention to promote lung development.
    Respiratory research 04/2013; 14(1):41. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-14-41 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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