Article

Complexity of Hsp90 in organelle targeting

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Agricultural Biotechnology Department, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
Plant Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 4.07). 08/2008; 67(4):323-34. DOI: 10.1007/s11103-008-9322-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an abundant and highly conserved molecular chaperone. In Arabidopsis, the Hsp90 gene family consists of seven members. Here, we report that the AtHsp90-6 gene gives rise to two mRNA populations, termed AtHsp90-6L and AtHsp90-6S due to alternative initiation of transcription. The AtHsp90-6L and AtHsp90-6S transcription start sites are located 228 nucleotides upstream and 124 nucleotides downstream of the annotated translation start site, respectively. Both transcripts are detected under normal or heat-shock conditions. The inducibility of AtHsp90-6 mRNAs by heat shock implies a potential role of both isoforms in stress management. Stable transformation experiments with fusion constructs between the N-terminal part of each AtHsp90-6 isoform and green fluorescent protein indicated import of both fusion proteins into mitochondria. In planta investigation confirmed that fusion of the AtHsp90-5 N-terminus to green fluorescent protein (GFP) did result in specific chloroplastic localization. The mechanisms of regulation for mitochondria- and plastid-localized chaperone-encoding genes are not well understood. Future work is needed to address the possible roles of harsh environmental conditions and developmental processes on fine-tuning and compartmentalization of the AtHsp90-6L, AtHsp90-6S, and AtHsp90-5 proteins in Arabidopsis.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Kosmas Haralampidis, Sep 09, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
123 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The plant cytosol is the major intracellular fluid that acts as the medium for inter-organellar crosstalk and where a plethora of important biological reactions take place. These include its involvement in protein synthesis and degradation, stress response signaling, carbon metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and accumulation of enzymes for defense and detoxification. This central role is highlighted by estimates indicating that the majority of eukaryotic proteins are cytosolic. Arabidopsis thaliana has been the subject of numerous proteomic studies on its different subcellular compartments. However, a detailed study of enriched cytosolic fractions from Arabidopsis cell culture has been performed only recently, with over 1,000 proteins reproducibly identified by mass spectrometry. The number of proteins allocated to the cytosol nearly doubles to 1,802 if a series of targeted proteomic characterizations of complexes is included. Despite this, few groups are currently applying advanced proteomic approaches to this important metabolic space. This review will highlight the current state of the Arabidopsis cytosolic proteome since its initial characterization a few years ago.
    Frontiers in Plant Science 02/2014; 5:21. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2014.00021 · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains seven Hsp90 family genes. Three organellar and two cytosolic AtHsp90 isoforms were characterized by functionally expressing them in a temperature-sensitive Hsp90 mutant and a conditional Hsp90-null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cytosolic AtHsp90-1 and AtHsp90-2 showed function similar to that of yeast in chaperoning roles; they could support the growth of yeast mutants at both permissive and non-permissive temperature. Neither the full-length nor mature forms of chloroplast-located AtHsp90-5, mitochondria-located AtHsp90-6 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-located AtHsp90-7 could complement the yeast Hsp90 proteins. The cytosolic AtHsp90s could stabilize the biomembrane of the temperature-sensitive Hsp90 mutant strains under stress conditions, while the organellar AtHsp90s could not protect the biomembrane of the temperature-sensitive Hsp90 mutant strains. Yeast two-hybrid results showed that either pre-protein or mature forms of organellar AtHsp90s could interact with cofactors cpHsp70, Hsp70, Hsp70t-2, Cyp40, p23 and a substrate protein of NOS, while cytosolic AtHsp90s could not interact with them. These results suggest that organellar and cytosolic AtHsp90s possibly work through different molecular mechanisms in forming chaperone complexes and performing their functional roles.
    Journal of plant physiology 09/2010; 167(14):1172-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jplph.2010.03.016 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: S-allantoin, a major ureide compound, is produced in plant peroxisomes from oxidized purines. Sequence evidence suggested that the Transthyretin-like (TTL) protein, which interacts with brassinosteroid receptors, may act as a bifunctional enzyme in the synthesis of S-allantoin. Here, we show that recombinant TTL from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyzes two enzymatic reactions leading to the stereoselective formation of S-allantoin, hydrolysis of hydroxyisourate through a C-terminal Urah domain, and decarboxylation of 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline through an N-terminal Urad domain. We found that two different mRNAs are produced from the TTL gene through alternative use of two splice acceptor sites. The corresponding proteins differ in the presence (TTL(1-)) and the absence (TTL(2-)) of a rare internal peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2). The two proteins have similar catalytic activity in vitro but different in vivo localization: TTL(1-) localizes in peroxisomes, whereas TTL(2-) localizes in the cytosol. Similar splice variants are present in monocots and dicots. TTL originated in green algae through a Urad-Urah fusion, which entrapped an N-terminal PTS2 between the two domains. The presence of this gene in all Viridiplantae indicates that S-allantoin biosynthesis has general significance in plant nitrogen metabolism, while conservation of alternative splicing suggests that this mechanism has general implications in the regulation of the ureide pathway in flowering plants.
    The Plant Cell 05/2010; 22(5):1564-74. DOI:10.1105/tpc.109.070102 · 9.58 Impact Factor

Similar Publications