Foxo3a Is Essential for Maintenance of the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Pool
ABSTRACT Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in an undifferentiated quiescent state within a bone marrow niche. Here we show that Foxo3a, a forkhead transcription factor that acts downstream of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway, is critical for HSC self-renewal. We generated gene-targeted Foxo3a(-/-) mice and showed that, although the proliferation and differentiation of Foxo3a(-/-) hematopoietic progenitors were normal, the number of colony-forming cells present in long-term cocultures of Foxo3a(-/-) bone marrow cells and stromal cells was reduced. The ability of Foxo3a(-/-) HSCs to support long-term reconstitution of hematopoiesis in a competitive transplantation assay was also impaired. Foxo3a(-/-) HSCs also showed increased phosphorylation of p38MAPK, an elevation of ROS, defective maintenance of quiescence, and heightened sensitivity to cell-cycle-specific myelotoxic injury. Finally, HSC frequencies were significantly decreased in aged Foxo3a(-/-) mice compared to the littermate controls. Our results demonstrate that Foxo3a plays a pivotal role in maintaining the HSC pool.
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ABSTRACT: The mammalian organism is comprised of tissue types with varying degrees of self-renewal and regenerative capacity. In most organs self-renewing tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells contribute to organ maintenance, and it is vital to maintain a functional stem cell pool to preserve organ homeostasis. Various conditions like tissue injury, stress responses, and regeneration challenge the stem cell pool to re-establish homeostasis (Figure 1). However, with increasing age the functionality of adult stem cells declines and genomic mutations accumulate. These defects affect different cellular response pathways and lead to impairments in regeneration, stress tolerance, and organ function as well as to an increased risk for the development of ageing associated diseases and cancer. Maintenance of the genome appears to be of utmost importance to preserve stem cell function and to reduce the risk of ageing associated dysfunctions and pathologies. In this review, we discuss the causal link between stem cell dysfunction and DNA damage accrual, different strategies how stem cells maintain genome integrity, and how these processes are affected during ageing.Ageing Research Reviews 02/2015; 102. DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2015.01.004 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Forkhead Box O (FoxO) transcription factors act in adult stem cells to preserve their regenerative potential. Previously, we reported that FoxO maintains the long-term proliferative capacity of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs), and that this occurs, in part, through the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Herein, we demonstrate that among the FoxO3-regulated genes in NPCs are a host of enzymes in central carbon metabolism that act to combat reactive oxygen species (ROS) by directing the flow of glucose and glutamine carbon into defined metabolic pathways. Characterization of the metabolic circuit observed upon loss of FoxO3 revealed a drop in glutaminolysis and filling of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Additionally, we found that glucose uptake, glucose metabolism and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway activity were similarly repressed in the absence of FoxO3. Finally, we demonstrate that impaired glucose and glutamine metabolism compromises the proliferative potential of NPCs and that this is exacerbated following FoxO3 loss. Collectively, our findings show that a FoxO3-dependent metabolic programme supports redox balance and the neurogenic potential of NPCs.The EMBO Journal 09/2013; DOI:10.1038/emboj.2013.186 · 10.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alterations in cellular metabolism are a key feature of the transformed phenotype. Enhanced macromolecule synthesis is a prerequisite for rapid proliferation but may also contribute to induction of angiogenesis, metastasis formation, and tumor progression, thereby leading to a poorer clinical outcome. Metabolic adaptations enable cancer cells to survive in suboptimal growth conditions, such as the limited supply of nutrient and oxygen often found in the tumor microenvironment. Metabolic changes, including activation of glycolysis and inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production, are induced under hypoxia to promote survival in low oxygen. FOXO3a, a transcription factor that is inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway and is upregulated in hypoxia, has emerged as an important negative regulator of MYC function. Recent studies have revealed that FOXO3a acts as a negative regulator of mitochondrial function through inhibition of MYC. Ablation of FOXO3a prevents the inhibition of mitochondrial function induced by hypoxia and results in enhanced oxidative stress. This review will focus on the antagonism between FOXO3a and MYC and discuss their role in cellular bioenergetics, reactive oxygen metabolism, and adaptation to hypoxia, raising questions about the role of FOXO proteins in cancer.Frontiers in Oncology 04/2013; 3:96. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2013.00096