MPP+-induced neuronal death in rats involves tyrosine 33 phosphorylation of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase WOX1.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101, ROC.
European Journal of Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.75). 05/2008; 27(7):1634-46. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06139.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (named WWOX, FOR or WOX1) is a pro-apoptotic protein and tumor suppressor. Animals treated with dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+) develop Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms. Here we investigated whether WOX1 is involved in MPP+-induced neurodegeneration. Upon insult with MPP+ in rat brains, WOX1 protein was upregulated and phosphorylated at Tyr33 (or activated) in the injured neurons in the striatum and cortex ipsilaterally to intoxication, as determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Also, WOX1 was present in the condensed nuclei and damaged mitochondria of degenerative neurons, as revealed by transmission immunoelectron microscopy. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that MPP+ induced membrane blebbing and shrinkage of neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Dominant-negative WOX1, a potent inhibitor of Tyr33 phosphorylation, abolished this event, indicating a critical role of the phosphorylation in apoptosis. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1) is known to bind and counteract the apoptotic function of WOX1. Suppression of JNK1 function by a dominant-negative spontaneously induced WOX1 activation. WOX1 physically interacted with JNK1 in SK-N-SH cells and rat brain extracts. MPP+ rapidly increased the binding, followed by dissociation, which is probably needed for WOX1 to exert apoptosis. We synthesized a short Tyr33-phosphorylated WOX1 peptide (11 amino acid residues). Interestingly, this peptide blocked MPP+-induced neuronal death in the rat brains, whereas non-phospho-WOX1 peptide had no effect. Together, activated WOX1 plays an essential role in the MPP+-induced neuronal death. Our synthetic phospho-WOX1 peptide prevents neuronal death, suggestive of its therapeutic potential in mitigating the symptoms of PD.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Not all leukemia T cells are susceptible to high levels of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-mediated apoptosis. At micromolar levels, PMA induces apoptosis of Jurkat T cells by causing mitochondrial polarization/de-polarization, release of cytosolic granules, and DNA fragmentation. Chemical inhibitors U0126 and PD98059 block mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1)-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and prevent apoptosis. Mechanistically, proapoptotic tumor suppressor WOX1 (also named WWOX or FOR) physically interacts with MEK1, in part, in the lysosomes in Jurkat cells. PMA induces the dissociation, which leads to relocation of MEK1 to lipid rafts and WOX1 to the mitochondria for causing apoptosis. U0126 inhibits PMA-induced dissociation of WOX1/MEK1 complex and supports survival of Jurkat cells. In contrast, less differentiated Molt-4 T cells are resistant to PMA-induced dissociation of the WOX1/MEK1 complex and thereby are refractory to apoptosis. U0126 overturns the resistance for enhancing apoptosis in Molt-4 cells. Together, the in vivo MEK1/WOX1 complex is a master on/off switch for apoptosis in leukemia T cells.
    Genes & cancer 05/2011; 2(5):550-62.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The family of WW domain-containing proteins contains over 2000 members. The small WW domain module is responsible, in part, for protein/protein binding interactions and signaling. Many of these proteins are located at the membrane/cytoskeleton area, where they act as adaptors to receive signals from the cell surface. In this review, we provide molecular insights regarding recent novel findings on signaling from the cell surface toward WW domain-containing oxidoreductase, known as WWOX, FOR or WOX1. More specifically, transforming growth factor beta 1 utilizes cell surface hyaluronidase Hyal-2 (hyaluronoglucosaminidase 2) as a cognate receptor for signaling with WWOX and Smad4 to control gene transcription, growth and death. Complement C1q alone, bypassing the activation of classical pathway, signals a novel event of apoptosis by inducing microvillus formation and WWOX activation. Deficiency in these signaling events appears to favorably support cancer growth.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 07/2010; 235(7):796-804. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zfra (zinc finger-like protein that regulates apoptosis) is a naturally occurring short peptide consisting of 31 amino acids, which regulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated cell death by interacting with receptor adaptor protein TRADD (TNF receptorassociated death domain protein) and downstream JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), NF-κB (Nuclear factor kappa B) and WWOX/WOX1 (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase). Cytochrome c release is generally considered as a pivotal step in apoptosis. Remarkably, overexpressed Zfra induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, which involves suppression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression (without causing cytochrome c release), counteracting the apoptotic function of tumor suppressor p53 and WWOX, and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential for ultimately leading to cell death. Control of cellular aging and apoptosis by Zfra, p53 and WWOX is discussed.
    Aging 12/2010; 2(12):1023-9. · 4.70 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 1, 2014