Use of intraoperative stereomicroscopy for preventing loss of metastases during frozen sectioning of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Optimal detection of metastases in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) remains controversial. To determine the reliability of intraoperative frozen sections, SLN protocol with one frozen section was compared with macroscopic SLN evaluation with consecutive complete SLN embedding.
SLN from 135 consecutive breast cancer patients were analysed under a sereomicroscope. Frozen sections were performed in suspicious or clearly involved SLN on cut surface. One control group (n = 143) underwent one intraoperative frozen section on each SLN. The second control group (n = 90) was subjected to stereomicroscopy and one intraoperative frozen section on each SLN. A conventional SLN protocol with cytokeratin immunohistochemistry was performed postoperatively in all cases. All groups were statistically comparable. In the study group metastases were suspected in 21 SLN (16%) under the stereomicroscope and all were confirmed histologically. The negative SLN rate was significantly lower in the study group than in the main control group (47% versus 64%, P = 0.008), suggesting loss of metastases during frozen sections. More macrometastases were detected in the study group (30% versus 15%, P = 0.006); there were no differences in isolated tumour cells or micrometastases. The false-negative rate was significantly lower in the control groups (29% versus 13% and 12%, P = 0.001).
Frozen sections potentially lead to loss or reduced size of metastatic deposits in SLN. Avoiding intraoperative frozen sections on grossly inconspicuous SLN may therefore be justified.
- CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 08/2003; 95(14):1040-3. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an accurate method for the detection of axillary metastases in cases of breast carcinoma and is of value as a replacement for axillary dissection. There is variation, however, in the methods and protocols used for the histopathological evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes, standardisation of which will be required if results of sentinel lymph node analysis are to be used to stratify patients into prognostic groups. The significance of micrometastases, isolated tumour cells (ITCs) and the value of immunohistochemistry are also matters for further definition. In this Expert Opinion we present reviews from two authors, providing American and European perspectives on the approach to sentinel lymph node evaluation.Histopathology 07/2005; 46(6):697-702. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become accepted as a reliable method of predicting the state of the axilla in breast cancer. The key issue, however, is the accuracy of the pathological evaluation of the biopsied node, which should be done intraoperatively whenever possible. In our initial experience on 192 patients using a conventional intraoperative frozen section method, the false-negative rate was 6.3%, and the negative predictive value was 93.7%. We devised a new and exhaustive intraoperative method, requiring about 40 minutes, in which pairs of sections are taken every 50 microm for the first 15 sections and every 100 microm thereafter, sampling the entire node. Sentinel node metastases were found in 143 of the 376 T1N0 cases examined (38%). Metastases were always identified on hematoxylin and eosin sections, although in 4% of cases, cytokeratin immunostaining on adjacent sections was useful for confirming malignancy. In 233 patients the SNs were disease-free; of these patients, 222 had metastasis-free axillary nodes, and 11 (4.7%) had another metastatic node. Extensive intraoperative examination of frozen sentinel nodes correctly predicts an uninvolved axilla in 95.3% of cases (negative predictive value). This method is, therefore, suitable for identifying patients in whom axillary dissection can be avoided.Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2002; 8(10):817-20. · 4.12 Impact Factor