Metabolic syndrome status changes with fitness level change: a retrospective analysis.
ABSTRACT Cardiorespiratory fitness level is inversely related to the incidence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). This study examined the effects of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness level on MetS status.
Male and female participants in a health enhancement program (n = 212) were clinically examined for changes in their MetS status and estimated aerobic capacity over a 3-year period. Two physical examinations, each including a maximal treadmill stress test, occurred within this time frame. Participants were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n = 103) was composed of individuals who presented with MetS at exam 1 and reversed their MetS disease status by exam 2; Group 2 (n = 75) members presented with MetS at both exams; and Group 3 (n = 34) individuals were MetS-free at exam 1 but acquired MetS by exam 2. The relationships between MetS clinical characteristics at exam 1 and exam 2 and changes in graded exercise test (GXT) duration were contrasted for the three groups.
GXT duration, estimated aerobic capacity (VO(2) max), and MetS characteristics improved significantly in Group 1 (P < 0.01). Group 2 individuals also increased GXT duration (P < 0.05) but showed only nonsignificant improvements (P > 0.05) in clinical characteristics. Group 3 members declined in most MetS characteristics and in estimated VO(2) max (P < 0.05).
Increases in GXT duration accompanied MetS reversal while declines in GXT duration occurred with MetS acquisition. On an individual basis, these changes in GXT duration may be an indicator of disease status.
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ABSTRACT: To examine how body composition changes in different body mass index (BMI) categories among young Finnish men during military service, which is associated with marked changes in diet and physical activity. In addition, this study examined how reported previous physical activity affected the body composition changes. Altogether 1003 men (19 yr) were followed throughout their military service (6-12 months). Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were recorded. Previous physical activity was assessed at the beginning of the service by a questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance assessments (BIA) at the beginning and at the end of the service. The measured parameters were fat mass (FM), fat percentage (fat %), fat-free mass (FFM), visceral fat area (VFA), lean body mass (LBM), and skeletal muscle mass (SMM). On average, military training decreased weight by 0.7%, FM by 9.7%, fat % by 6.6%, and VFA by 43.4%. FFM increased by 1.3%, LBM by 1.2%, and SMM by 1.7%. The group of underweight and normal-weight men gained weight, FM, and FFM, whereas overweight and obese men lost weight and FM and gained FFM. FM was most reduced in the groups of overweight (20.8%) and obese (24.9%) men. The amount of VFA was reduced in all BMI groups (38%-44%). Among overweight men who reported being inactive previous to the military service, more beneficial changes in body composition were observed compared with those who reported being physically active. The lifestyle changes associated with military service markedly reduce fat tissue and increase the amount of lean tissue. These beneficial changes are prominent among previously inactive subjects with high BMI.Medicine and science in sports and exercise 09/2009; 41(9):1735-42. DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31819fcd3c · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study sought examine the independent and combined associations of changes in fitness and fatness with the subsequent incidence of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and hypercholesterolemia. The relative and combined contributions of fitness and fatness to health are controversial, and few studies are available on the associations of changes in fitness and fatness with the development of CVD risk factors. We followed up 3,148 healthy adults who received at least 3 medical examinations. Fitness was determined by using a maximal treadmill test. Fatness was expressed by percent body fat and body mass index. Changes in fitness and fatness between the first and second examinations were categorized into loss, stable, or gain groups. During the 6-year follow-up after the second examination, 752, 426, and 597 adults developed hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and hypercholesterolemia, respectively. Maintaining or improving fitness was associated with lower risk of developing each outcome, whereas increasing fatness was associated with higher risk of developing each outcome, after adjusting for possible confounders and fatness or fitness for each other (all p for trend <0.05). In the joint analyses, the increased risks associated with fat gain appeared to be attenuated, although not completely eliminated, when fitness was maintained or improved. In addition, the increased risks associated with fitness loss were also somewhat attenuated when fatness was reduced. Both maintaining or improving fitness and preventing fat gain are important to reduce the risk of developing CVD risk factors in healthy adults.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2012; 59(7):665-72. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.11.013 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome is the clustering of several cardiometabolic risk factors that can lead to the development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. We evaluated whether a change in aerobic fitness resulting from a lifestyle intervention could significantly change the odds of metabolic syndrome prevalence. Participants (n = 810) were recruited into PREMIER, a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial with outcome assessments at 6 and 18 months. The primary eligibility criterion was a diagnosis of prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. PREMIER randomized participants to 2 lifestyle interventions, both of which included increased physical activity, or an advice-only control group. Participants completed a submaximal treadmill exercise test; we used reduction in heart rate as the measure of improved aerobic fitness. We used logistic regression to determine intervention effects on metabolic syndrome prevalence. Our models controlled for dietary pattern change. The lifestyle interventions had no significant effect on metabolic syndrome prevalence at 6 months or 18 months. When combining intervention and control groups, at 6 and 18 months, a 1-beat-per-minute reduction in heart rate was associated with a 4% reduction in prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P < .001). When we tested for weight change as a mediator, the association was no longer significant. Increased aerobic fitness may reduce prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This association appears to be mediated through concomitant weight change.Preventing chronic disease 03/2012; 9:E68. DOI:10.5888/pcd9.110171 · 1.96 Impact Factor