Dopamine receptor gene expression in human amygdaloid nuclei: elevated D4 receptor mRNA in major depression.
ABSTRACT Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrating changes in dopamine (DA) transporter and D2 receptors in the amygdaloid complex of subjects with major depression indicate that disruption of dopamine neurotransmission to the amygdala may contribute to behavioral symptoms associated with depression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate the regional distribution of gene expression of DA receptors in the human amygdala. In addition, relative levels of mRNA of DA receptors in the basal amygdaloid nucleus were measured postmortem in subjects with major depression and normal control subjects. All five subtypes of DA receptor mRNA were detected in all amygdaloid subnuclei, although D1, D2, and D4 receptor mRNAs were more abundant than D3 and D5 mRNAs by an order of magnitude. The highest level of D1 mRNA was found in the central nucleus, whereas D2 mRNA was the most abundant in the basal nucleus. Levels of D4 mRNA were highest in the basal and central nuclei. In the basal nucleus, amounts of D4, but not D1 or D2, mRNAs were significantly higher in subjects with major depression as compared to control subjects. These findings demonstrate that the D1, D2 and D4 receptors are the major subtypes of DA receptors in the human amygdala. Elevated DA receptor gene expression in depressive subjects further implicates altered dopaminergic transmission in the amygdala in depression.
Article: Relationship between the effect of interferon therapy and the change of hepatitis C virus non-structural 5B gene.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA titre has been regarded as a factor affecting the response to interferon (IFN) therapy of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The focus of our study is the investigation of the nucleotide sequence of HCV-RNA NS5B, which may code RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and NS5A in the sera of 33 patients with CHC prior to IFN therapy. Hepatitis C virus genotype and HCV-RNA titre were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR. The sequence for HCV-RNA NS5B (nt 8331-8600 in 1b and 8410-8679 in 2a) was determined by direct sequencing. The changes of the predicted amino acids in the genotype-specific sites of HCV-J, HCV-BK, HC-J4/83, HCV-JT, HCV-N, HC-J6 and HCV-K2a were examined, and the mutation was defined when changes of amino acids in sites specific to different reported genotypes were revealed. The mutations were observed in 6/19 (32%) in genotype 1b and 9/14 (64%) in 2a. In the 1b group, complete response (CR) was achieved in 5/6 of the mutant and in 2/13 of the wild type groups (P < 0.05). No relationship was observed between IFN effectiveness and HCV-RNA titre in the 1b wild type group. In the 2a group, CR was achieved in 4/9 of the mutant and in 4/5 of the wild type groups. An inverse relationship between IFN responsiveness and HCV-RNA titre was apparent in 1b mutant, 2a wild and 2a mutant. These data suggest the possible relationship between changes in the HCV-NS5B gene and the effect of IFN therapy in CHC patients with genotype 1b.Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 04/1999; 14(4):345-51. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Memories of emotionally arousing events tend to be more vivid and to persist longer than do memories of neutral or trivial events. Moreover, memories of emotionally influenced information may endure after a single experience. Recent findings strongly suggest that the influence of emotional arousal on memory consolidation is mediated by the release of adrenal stress hormones (epinephrine and glucocorticoids) and neurotransmitters that converge in modulating the noradrenergic system within the amygdala. Considerable evidence also indicates that amygdala activation influences memory by regulating consolidation in other brain regions. The findings suggest further that this memory-modulatory system may be involved in the formation of traumatic memories and posttraumatic stress disorder in human subjects.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 05/2003; 985:273-93. · 3.15 Impact Factor
Article: Amygdala reactivity and mood-congruent memory in individuals at risk for depressive relapse.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: According to cognitive diathesis-stress theories, a latent cognitive vulnerability to depression is activated by negative affect in individuals at risk for depressive relapse. This vulnerability can manifest as mood-congruent memory during sad mood and may involve amygdala response, which is implicated in memory for emotionally arousing stimuli. This study examined whether amygdala modulates memory for negatively valenced words before and after a sad mood induction in healthy individuals with and without a history of recurrent major depression. Fourteen unmedicated remitted depressed (RD) and 14 matched never depressed (ND) individuals were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a self-referent encoding/evaluation task (SRET) preceding and following a sad mood challenge. After each SRET, participants' free recall was assessed. Following sad mood induction, bilateral amygdala response during encoding of valenced words predicted increased recall of negative self-referent words for a subset of RD participants. This association was not present before the sad mood induction and was not evident in individuals without a history of depression, regardless of mood state. These results are consistent with cognitive diathesis-stress theories and suggest a role for the amygdala in modulating mood-congruent memory during transient sad mood in individuals who are vulnerable to depression relapse.Biological Psychiatry 02/2007; 61(2):231-9. · 8.28 Impact Factor