Ulna/height ratio as clinical parameter separating EXT1 from EXT2 families?
ABSTRACT Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder. The two genes responsible (EXT1 and EXT2) have been identified. We investigated 12 MO families for phenotype details and the genetic basis by cosegregation and mutation analysis (seven novel pathogenic mutations [five frameshift, one splice site, and one gross deletion] and one novel missense polymorphism). We found EXT1 to be responsible in seven families (19 affected members) and EXT2 in four families (17 affected members). One family remains undetermined. We found a tendency to a more severe phenotype in EXT1 families. As a novel finding, we could identify a single parameter (ulna/height ratio) that separates EXT1 family from EXT2 family in our series.
- SourceAvailable from: Gregory A Schmale[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have carried out a linkage analysis on 11 families segregating gene(s) for hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT). Four highly informative, short tandem-repeat (STR) markers that have been physically mapped to an interval surrounding the Langer-Giedion chromosomal region (8q24.11-q24.13) were used in a multipoint linkage analysis. Significant evidence for linkage of EXT with genetic heterogeneity was found. A model of heterogeneity with linkage of the disease gene to the STR markers in 70% of the families (with a 95% confidence interval of 26%-96%) produced a maximum LOD score of 8.11, with the most likely position of EXT between D8S85 and D8S199. Thus there are at least two genes that are capable of causing hereditary multiple exostoses, one in the Langer-Giedion region and one at another, unlinked location.The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/1993; 53(1):71-9. · 11.20 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two homologous genes, EXT1 and EXT2, responsible for the development of benign multiple cartilagenous bone tumors (exostoses) on the long bones, have been identified in the past 2 years. Several arguments have been provided to support the hypothesis that these genes have tumor suppressor activity and that loss of function of these genes may contribute to the development of bone tumors. The recent identification of two EXT-like genes, EXTL1 and EXTL2, homologous to the EXT genes and to each other, revealed the existence of a larger family of genes. We now report the identification of a homologous EST (EST01365), not derived from the known EXT and EXTL genes, indicating the existence of one additional member of this gene family. We characterized this third EXT-like gene, EXTL3, and compared it with the other four members of the EXT-EXTL family. In view of its putative tumor suppressor function, the EXTL3 gene can be considered a candidate gene for the breast cancer locus on chromosome 8p12-p22.Genomics 02/1998; 47(2):230-7. · 3.01 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the formation of cartilage-capped prominences (exostoses) that develop from the juxta-epiphyseal regions of the long bones. 3 genes are known to be involved in the formation of exostoses. Among them, EXT1 and EXT2, which encode enzymes that catalyse the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate, an important component of the extracellular matrix, are responsible for over 70% of the EXT cases. A large Chinese family with hereditary multiple exostoses has been analysed and the disease-causing mutation has been found. Blood samples were obtained from 69 family members, including 23 affected individuals. The EXT phenotype was shown to be linked to the EXT2 gene by using 2-point linkage analysis. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing, a previously unreported deletion of a G in exon 3 of EXT2 gene was observed. This deletion co-segregated with the disease phenotype, suggesting that it is the disease-causing mutation in this family. Furthermore, in at least 4 members chondrosarcoma occurred after either an operation or injury of the exostosis and 3 of them died of the malignancy in the family. Whether the operation or injury was responsible for the malignant transformation still needs further study.British Journal of Cancer 08/2001; 85(2):176-81. · 5.08 Impact Factor