Independent and joint effects of socioeconomic, behavioral, and neighborhood characteristics on physical inactivity and activity levels among US children and adolescents.
ABSTRACT This study examines the independent and joint associations between several socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics and physical activity (PA) and inactivity prevalence among 68,288 US children aged 6-17 years. The 2003 National Survey of Children's Health was used to estimate PA prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds of activity and inactivity and adjusted prevalence, while least squares regression was used to model mean number of days of physical inactivity (PIA) in past month. The prevalence of PA varied substantially by socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, with older, female, non-English speaking, and metropolitan children and those with lower socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood social capital having higher inactivity and lower activity levels. Children who watched television >or=3 h/day had 60% higher adjusted odds of PIA and 30% lower odds of PA than those who watched television <3 h/day. Children experiencing inadequate sleep during the entire week had 55% higher odds of PIA and 29% lower odds of PA than those who experienced >or=5 nights of adequate sleep during the week. Children whose both parents were physically inactive had 147% higher odds of PIA and 46% lower odds of PA than children whose parents were both physically active. Differentials in PIA by ethnicity, SES, television viewing, and parental inactivity were greater for younger than for older children. Subgroups such as older, female adolescents, children from socially disadvantaged households and neighborhoods, and those in metropolitan areas should be targeted for the promotion of regular physical activity and reduced television viewing time.
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ABSTRACT: While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children.Social Science [?] Medicine 06/2012; 75(8):1488-96. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.06.002 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine some parental predictors of physical inactivity in Spanish adolescents. The sample comprised 1,978 children, aged between 12 and 16 years. A quantitative and qualitative technical triangulation was employed. The study analyzed data of the parents' educational level, the importance they grant to physical-sport activities, and their physical-sport practice. Quantitative technique: a questionnaire (MACOFYD) was used to collect the data. Descriptive, bivariate, and multinomial regression analyses were employed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Qualitative technique: four discussion groups were conducted, consisting of parents, physical education teachers, teachers of other subjects, and children aged between 12 and 16 years. The results indicated that adolescents are four times more likely to be physically inactive if their parents have never exercised (odds ratio [OR] = 4.065, and = 3.487, for the fathers and mothers, respectively, p < 0.05). When parents grant "some" or "much" importance to physical-sport practice, adolescents are less likely to be physically inactive (OR = 0.185 and 0.118 respectively, p < 0.01). No significant correlation was found between adolescents' physical-sport activity and parents' educational level. However, young people reproach their parents because they emphasize academic goals more than physical-sport practice-an observation that teachers also confirm. Young people perceive their parents as being the education agents with the greatest influence over their inactive lifestyles. Many parents are unaware of their influence and, therefore, do not take responsibility, declaring that the teachers' influence is greater.Journal of sports science & medicine 01/2012; 11(1):95-101. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies suggest parenting a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with high stress levels. Most studies were based on small clinical samples, few included non-ASD comparison groups, and analyses of underlying predictors of stress were limited. One past population-based study suggested that the association between parenting stress and ASD varied according to the child’s special service needs, but further research is needed to fully explore this finding. Objectives: To examine the association between having a child with an ASD and parenting stress and aggravation and to examine associations between parenting aggravation and family sociodemographic characteristics, health care access, and social supports among parents of children with and without ASDs. Methods: Weighted prevalence estimates of parent-reported stress indicators, including a composite measure of aggravation in parenting, were assessed for parent respondents of 73,030 US children aged 4-17 years included in the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. Parents who reported their children had ASDs currently were compared with 4 mutually-exclusive groups of parents of children without a current report of ASD. Within each group, risk factors for high aggravation were assessed. Results: The proportion of parents of children with current ASDs who were in the high-aggravation range (36.6%) was comparable to the proportions for parents who reported their child had a past but not current ASD (35.2%), or had another non-ASD emotional, developmental, or behavioral problem (31.2%). Proportions of high aggravation were significantly lower for parents of children with other types of special health care needs (6.5%) and no special health care needs (5.1%). Among parents of children with current ASDs, variations in high aggravation were observed based on whether the child received family-centered care (26.1% high aggravation versus 46.3% for those without family-center care), received care within a medical home (defined based on American Academy of Pediatrics framework) (12.5% versus 48.4%), recently received mental health treatment (51.3% versus 23.3%), was uninsured during the past year (68.5% versus 35.0%), whether the parent had someone to turn to for emotional support (32.8% versus 53.8%), and parent-reported ASD severity (27.3%, 41.6%, and 54.1% for mild, moderate, and severe ratings, respectively). After multivariable adjustment, independent associations were observed between high parent aggravation and child age <6 years (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=1.7), child uninsured in past year (aPR=1.6), child not receiving care in a medical home (aPR=2.0), child recently received mental health treatment (aPR=1.8), parent lacks someone to turn to for emotional support (aPR=2.1), and child’s current ASD rated as moderate/severe (aPR=1.4). While some of these same factors were associated with aggravation within the non-ASD groups, the association between lack of a medical home and parental aggravation was particularly noteworthy for children with current or past only ASDs reported. Conclusions: Having a child with an ASD is associated with high stress levels; however, there is variability within health care and social support subgroups. Strategies to strengthen family-centered care and other components of the medical home construct might positively impact parent stress levels for children with ASDs.International Meeting for Autism Research 2010; 05/2010