Independent and Joint Effects of Socioeconomic, Behavioral, and Neighborhood Characteristics on Physical Inactivity and Activity Levels Among US Children and Adolescents

Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 18-41, Rockville MD, 20857, USA.
Journal of Community Health (Impact Factor: 1.28). 08/2008; 33(4):206-16. DOI: 10.1007/s10900-008-9094-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examines the independent and joint associations between several socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics and physical activity (PA) and inactivity prevalence among 68,288 US children aged 6-17 years. The 2003 National Survey of Children's Health was used to estimate PA prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds of activity and inactivity and adjusted prevalence, while least squares regression was used to model mean number of days of physical inactivity (PIA) in past month. The prevalence of PA varied substantially by socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, with older, female, non-English speaking, and metropolitan children and those with lower socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood social capital having higher inactivity and lower activity levels. Children who watched television >or=3 h/day had 60% higher adjusted odds of PIA and 30% lower odds of PA than those who watched television <3 h/day. Children experiencing inadequate sleep during the entire week had 55% higher odds of PIA and 29% lower odds of PA than those who experienced >or=5 nights of adequate sleep during the week. Children whose both parents were physically inactive had 147% higher odds of PIA and 46% lower odds of PA than children whose parents were both physically active. Differentials in PIA by ethnicity, SES, television viewing, and parental inactivity were greater for younger than for older children. Subgroups such as older, female adolescents, children from socially disadvantaged households and neighborhoods, and those in metropolitan areas should be targeted for the promotion of regular physical activity and reduced television viewing time.

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    • "Consistent prior research (Duke et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2008), and drawing on items from the NSCH, social capital was assessed at the individual level using four items including: " People in my community help each other out " , " We watch out for each other's children in this community " , " There are people I can count on in this community " , and " If my child were outside playing and got hurt or scared, there are adults nearby who I would trust to help my child " . Parents answered each question using a 4 point response scale (3 ¼ definitely agree, 2 ¼ somewhat agree; 1 ¼ somewhat disagree; 0 ¼ definitely disagree). "
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    ABSTRACT: While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 06/2012; 75(8):1488-96. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.06.002 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    • "They suggest that " parents' investment should be considered in order to prevent dropout from organized sport. " Regarding physical inactivity among adolescents, results from diverse studies indicate that when both parents are physically inactive, the children are more likely to be physically inactive than are children whose parents are physically active (Singh et al., 2008). When parents are physically active, the likelihood of their daughters, but not their sons, becoming physically active increases (Rangul et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine some parental predictors of physical inactivity in Spanish adolescents. The sample comprised 1,978 children, aged between 12 and 16 years. A quantitative and qualitative technical triangulation was employed. The study analyzed data of the parents' educational level, the importance they grant to physical-sport activities, and their physical-sport practice. Quantitative technique: a questionnaire (MACOFYD) was used to collect the data. Descriptive, bivariate, and multinomial regression analyses were employed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Qualitative technique: four discussion groups were conducted, consisting of parents, physical education teachers, teachers of other subjects, and children aged between 12 and 16 years. The results indicated that adolescents are four times more likely to be physically inactive if their parents have never exercised (odds ratio [OR] = 4.065, and = 3.487, for the fathers and mothers, respectively, p < 0.05). When parents grant "some" or "much" importance to physical-sport practice, adolescents are less likely to be physically inactive (OR = 0.185 and 0.118 respectively, p < 0.01). No significant correlation was found between adolescents' physical-sport activity and parents' educational level. However, young people reproach their parents because they emphasize academic goals more than physical-sport practice-an observation that teachers also confirm. Young people perceive their parents as being the education agents with the greatest influence over their inactive lifestyles. Many parents are unaware of their influence and, therefore, do not take responsibility, declaring that the teachers' influence is greater.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 01/2012; 11(1):95-101. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Icelandic children can expect to live a long and healthy life and have the right to the highest possible standard of health. Despite this, as in other Western countries, the prevalence of psychosocial complaints and long term conditions in Icelandic children is growing and they are struggling with increased levels of preventable health conditions. The purposes of this cross sectional, secondary analysis were to perform a psychometric evaluation on the instrument School-Children Health Promotion; to describe self-reported health promotion behavior of 10-12 year old Icelandic school children, and to predict novel and potentially useful patterns of health promotion behavior of 10-12 year old Icelandic school children using data mining methods. Existing data from 480 10-12 year old Icelandic school children and 911 parents were analyzed. Analysis of the instrument School-Children Health Promotion indicates that it is, in general, a valid and reliable instrument for measuring health promotion behavior of 10-12 year old Icelandic children. Five factors emerged from the 21 item instrument, which were labeled: "Positive Thinking." "Diet and Sleep Pattern," "Seek Psycho-social Support," "Coping Behavior," and "Health Habits." The results indicated that girls use more positive health promotion behavior than boys; however, differences in health promotion behavior between 5th and 6th grade students were not obvious. The results of data mining analyses, using the classifiers decision tree (J48) and logistic regression (Logistic) to predict health promotion behavior, showed better performance with the subsets of the five factors and the overall instrument than with the full dataset of 199 items. For the subsets, the logistic regression models performed better than the decision trees with AUC ranging from 0.71 to 0.80. The strongest predictors of health promotion behaviors were validation and caring in friendship, intimate disclosure between friends, and quality of life. Results of this secondary analysis indicate that friendship is of vital importance with regards to health promotion behavior. Therefore, further studies on the effect friendship has on health promotion behavior of Icelandic children in the 10-12 year old age group are clearly needed.
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