Independent and Joint Effects of Socioeconomic, Behavioral, and Neighborhood Characteristics on Physical Inactivity and Activity Levels Among US Children and Adolescents

Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 18-41, Rockville MD, 20857, USA.
Journal of Community Health (Impact Factor: 1.28). 08/2008; 33(4):206-16. DOI: 10.1007/s10900-008-9094-8
Source: PubMed


This study examines the independent and joint associations between several socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics and physical activity (PA) and inactivity prevalence among 68,288 US children aged 6-17 years. The 2003 National Survey of Children's Health was used to estimate PA prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds of activity and inactivity and adjusted prevalence, while least squares regression was used to model mean number of days of physical inactivity (PIA) in past month. The prevalence of PA varied substantially by socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, with older, female, non-English speaking, and metropolitan children and those with lower socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood social capital having higher inactivity and lower activity levels. Children who watched television >or=3 h/day had 60% higher adjusted odds of PIA and 30% lower odds of PA than those who watched television <3 h/day. Children experiencing inadequate sleep during the entire week had 55% higher odds of PIA and 29% lower odds of PA than those who experienced >or=5 nights of adequate sleep during the week. Children whose both parents were physically inactive had 147% higher odds of PIA and 46% lower odds of PA than children whose parents were both physically active. Differentials in PIA by ethnicity, SES, television viewing, and parental inactivity were greater for younger than for older children. Subgroups such as older, female adolescents, children from socially disadvantaged households and neighborhoods, and those in metropolitan areas should be targeted for the promotion of regular physical activity and reduced television viewing time.

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    • "However, the empirical evidence to date shows that the associations between measures of social capital and PA among children and adolescents are positive. Indeed, various studies confirmed that higher levels of perceived social capital were associated with higher levels of PA among children [31] and adolescents [10,11], even after being adjusted for physical environmental factors [10,32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore whether availability of sports facilities, parks, and neighbourhood social capital (NSC) and their interaction are associated with leisure time sports participation among Dutch adolescents. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on complete data from the last wave of the YouRAction evaluation trial. Adolescents (n = 852) completed a questionnaire asking for sports participation, perceived NSC and demographics. Ecometric methods were used to aggregate perceived NSC to zip code level. Availability of sports facilities and parks was assessed by means of geographic information systems within the zip-code area and within a 1600 meter buffer. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, with neighborhood and individual as levels, were conducted to examine associations between physical and social environmental factors and leisure time sports participation. Simple slopes analysis was conducted to decompose interaction effects. NSC was significantly associated with sports participation (OR: 3.51 (95%CI: 1.18;10.41)) after adjustment for potential confounders. Availability of sports facilities and availability of parks were not associated with sports participation. A significant interaction between NSC and density of parks within the neighbourhood area (OR: 1.22 (90%CI: 1.01;1.34)) was found. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that adolescents were most likely to engage in leisure time sports when both availability of parks and NSC were highest. The results of this study indicate that leisure time sports participation is associated with levels of NSC, but not with availability of parks or sports facilities. In addition, NSC and availability of parks in the zip code area interacted in such a way that leisure time sports participation is most likely among adolescents living in zip code areas with higher levels of NSC, and higher availability of parks. Hence, availability of parks appears only to be important for leisure time sports participation when NSC is high.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 07/2012; 9(1):90. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-9-90 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Consistent prior research (Duke et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2008), and drawing on items from the NSCH, social capital was assessed at the individual level using four items including: " People in my community help each other out " , " We watch out for each other's children in this community " , " There are people I can count on in this community " , and " If my child were outside playing and got hurt or scared, there are adults nearby who I would trust to help my child " . Parents answered each question using a 4 point response scale (3 ¼ definitely agree, 2 ¼ somewhat agree; 1 ¼ somewhat disagree; 0 ¼ definitely disagree). "
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    ABSTRACT: While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 06/2012; 75(8):1488-96. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.06.002 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    • "Associations between social capital, trust or cohesion and physical activity have been observed cross-sectionally [9-11] and longitudinally [8]. Positive associations between social ties or networks (i.e. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine associations between aspects of the neighborhood social environment and body mass index (BMI) in youth both cross-sectionally and prospectively; and whether this association was mediated by physical activity, screen-time and sedentary time. Data were collected in 2004 and 2006 in high and low socio-economic areas of Melbourne, Australia. In 2004, 185 children aged 8-9 years (47% boys) and 359 children aged 13-15 years (45% boys) participated. Parents reported their perceptions of aspects of the social environment (i.e. social networks and social trust/cohesion), and physical activity (i.e. time spent outdoors by their children; and their younger children's walking and cycling trips) and screen-time (i.e. TV viewing, computer use). The older children self-reported their walking and cycling trips and their screen-time. All children wore an accelerometer to objectively assess outside-school hours moderate- to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. BMI was calculated from height and weight measured in 2004 and 2006. Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between the social environment and BMI. Mediation analyses using the products of coefficient method were conducted to determine whether associations between the social environment and BMI were mediated by the time spent in a range of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Cross-sectional and prospective regression analyses showed that a more positive social network and higher social trust/cohesion was related to lower BMI among children. There was no evidence that time spent in physical activity or sedentary behaviors mediated this relation, despite significant associations between social networks and screen-time and between screen-time and BMI. The findings suggest that the neighborhood social environment may be important for preventing overweight and obesity in children. Further research investigating the mechanisms through which the neighborhood social environment exerts its effect on BMI is needed.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 03/2012; 9(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-9-31 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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