[Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and Kearns-Sayre syndrome : interdisciplinary diagnosis and therapy].
ABSTRACT The main symptom of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) are upper eyelid ptosis and a slowly progressive weakness of the extraocular muscles. Mitochondrial disorders are much more frequent than previously assumed. Because of great phenotypic variability, early diagnosis may prove to be difficult.
Retrospective analysis of 30 patients with CPEO or KSS with regard to ophthalmological and neurological findings as well as molecular genetic background.
Twenty-seven patients presented with upper eyelid ptosis as the first clinical symptom. In 11 of these patients, ptosis was either unilateral or asymmetric. External ophthalmoplegia was present in only three patients initially; however, it developed in 27 patients in the later course of the disease. Diplopia was found to be more frequent than previously assumed. Twenty-six patients showed characteristic histological hallmarks in skeletal muscle biopsy. In 22 patients, molecular genetic testing revealed mitochondrial DNA mutations.
Mitochondrial disorders should be included in the early differential diagnosis of patients with etiologically unclear acquired isolated unilateral or bilateral ptosis, atypical eye movement disorders, or diplopia. A correct diagnosis is mandatory for qualified counseling and the management of potentially life-threatening complications, such as cardiac involvement.
Article: Mitochondrial disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Defects of mitochondrial metabolism cause a wide range of human diseases that include examples from all medical subspecialties. This review updates the topic of mitochondrial diseases by reviewing the most important recent advances in this area. The factors influencing inheritance, maintenance and replication of mtDNA are reviewed and the genotype-phenotype of mtDNA disorders has been expanded, with new insights into epidemiology, pathogenesis and its role in ageing. Recently identified nuclear gene mutations of mitochondrial proteins include mutations of frataxin causing Friedreich's ataxia, PINK1, DJ1 causing Parkinson's disease and POLG causing infantile mtDNA depletion syndrome, ophthalmoplegia, parkinsonism, male subfertility and, in a transgenic mouse model, premature senescence. Mitochondrial defects in neurodegenerative diseases include Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Improved understanding of mtDNA inheritance and mutation penetrance patterns, and novel techniques for mtDNA modification offer significant prospects for more accurate genetic counselling and effective future therapies.The Lancet 08/2006; 368(9529):70-82. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial respiratory chain abnormalities are an important cause of neuromuscular disease and may be due to defects of either the mitochondrial or nuclear genome. On account of the clinical and genetic heterogeneity exhibited by the mitochondrial myopathies, their investigation and diagnosis remains a challenge, requiring a combination of techniques including muscle histochemistry, biochemical assessment of respiratory chain function and molecular genetic studies. Here, we describe a step-by-step approach to the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of mitochondrial muscle disease, highlighting the many potential problems that can hinder reaching the correct diagnosis.Neuromuscular Disorders 05/2004; 14(4):237-45. · 3.46 Impact Factor
- The Lancet 05/1988; 1(8590):885. · 39.06 Impact Factor