The objective was to quantify the Cerebral, and Femoral arterial hemodynamics as well as the calf vein section changes induced by a Tilt up test continuing with a Tilt plus LBNP after a 60 day HDT (WISE).
24 healthy volunteers (25-40 y) underwent a 60 day HDT (-6 degree) bedrest: 8 as Control (Co), 8 with Exercise (Ex: treadmill under LBNP and flywheel), 8 with Nutrition (Nut: daily protein supplement). At R+0 all of them underwent a 10 min 80 degree Tilt up test, to which several LBNP period of 3 min were added (from -10 to -50 mmHg by steps of 10 mmHg) until presyncopal stage. Cerebral and Femoral flow changes were assessed by Doppler. Posterior Tibial, and Gastrocnemian vein were investigated by echography.
At Post HDT 10 min Tilt: cerebral flow decreased similarly in the 3 groups, but more in the non finishers than in the finishers, while the femoral decreased similarly in all groups. Leg vascular resistance and cerebral/femoral flow ratio increased less in the Co and Nut gr than in the Ex gr, and also in the non finishers than in the finishers. Percent increase in Gastrocnemian and Tibial section was higher in Co and Nut gr than in Ex gr, and in non finishers than in finishers.
Non exercise and non finisher subjects showed a lack of leg vasoconstriction, and a higher calf vein distensibility at post HDT Tilt test.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of microgravity on the diurnal variation of intraocular pressure (IOP).
IOPs were measured with the pressure phosphene tonometer in 1 subject (the first Korean astronaut) during spaceflight. IOPs were measured every 3 hours during day time (6 times per day) at 2 separate days in space with 3 repeated measurements at each time on both eyes. A total of 72 measurements were obtained during spaceflight. To obtain control IOP data, IOP was measured using the same protocol on ground before spaceflight.
Mean IOP increased by 26.3% during spaceflight compared with that on ground [16.47 ± 0.60 (SD) mm Hg vs. 13.04 ± 0.74 mm Hg, P<0.001). The IOP elevation was maintained until Launch+8 days. There was no significant difference in IOP increase between right and left eyes (16.4 2 ± 0.65 mm Hg right eye vs. 16.53 ± 0.56 mm Hg left eye). There was a different pattern of diurnal variation of IOP during spaceflight compared with that on ground. The IOP at 7 AM was the lowest under microgravity, whereas it was the highest on ground. The slope of the best fit line for diurnal IOP measures was 0.0349 mm Hg/h (95% confidence interval: 0.0082-0.0616) under microgravity and -0.0294 mm Hg/h (95% confidence interval: -0.0063-0.0041) on ground.
The study showed a different diurnal pattern of IOP under microgravity compared with that on ground. This result suggests that gravity and subsequent body fluid shift is one of the determining factors of IOP diurnal variation.
Journal of glaucoma 10/2011; 20(8):488-91. DOI:10.1097/IJG.0b013e3181f464d2 · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Sex and gender differences in the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight were examined with the goal of optimizing the health and safety of male and female astronauts at the forefront of space exploration. Female astronauts are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance after space flight; the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome predominates slightly in males. Since spaceflight simulates vascular aging, sex-specific effects on vascular endothelium and thrombotic risk warrant examination as predisposing factors to atherosclerosis, important as the current cohort of astronauts ages. Currently, 20% of astronauts are women, and the recently selected astronaut recruits are 50% women. Thus there should be expectation that future research will reflect the composition of the overall population to determine potential benefits or risks. This should apply both to clinical studies and to basic science research.
Journal of Women's Health 11/2014; 23(11):950-5. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2014.4912 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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