Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and blood pressure control rates in the population with chronic kidney disease are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the state of blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data of participants with chronic kidney disease from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program. The Kidney Early Evaluation Program is a national-based health screening program for individuals at high risk for kidney disease conducted in 49 states and the District of Columbia. Of 55,220 adults with kidney disease, 10,813 completed information for demographic and medical characteristics used in the analysis. Predictors of blood pressure control were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis.
Hypertension prevalence, awareness, and treatment proportions in the screened cohort were high (86.2%, 80.2%, and 70.0%, respectively), but blood pressure control rates were low (13.2%). These proportions increased with advancing stage of kidney disease. Elevated systolic blood pressure accounted for the majority of inadequate control. Male gender (odds ratio [OR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.99), non-Hispanic black race (OR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.65-0.89), and body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or more (OR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73-0.94) were inversely related with blood pressure control. Those with stage 3 kidney disease were more likely to have blood pressure at goal than those with stage 1 kidney disease (OR 2.08; 95% CI, 1.55-2.80).
We conclude that despite increased awareness and treatment of hypertension, control rates in these participants are poor. This poor control rate centers around elevated systolic pressure in people who are obese, non-Hispanic black, or male. These data suggest that those who are aware of their kidney disease are more likely to achieve blood pressure control.
"Hypertension prevalence also increases with worsening CKD, which was also observed in the present study with hypertension found in 80.5% in patients with stage 3 CKD and 85% of those with stage 5 CKD. These findings were in keeping with observations in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program in Americans where hypertension prevalence was 86.8% in stage 3 CKD, increasing to 95.5% in stages 4–5 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) globally. Diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), both prevalent in South Africa, have not been reported as significant causes of ESRD.
We evaluated chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a cross-sectional study of 302 patients (165 females/ 137 males) at a CKD clinic in rural northern KwaZulu-Natal. We included all CKD outpatient clinic attendees and excluded acute renal failure patients. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data collected were analyzed with Stata11 software. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with advanced CKD and results expressed as the odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval [OR (95% CI)].
Of 302 patients analyzed, 290 (96%) were black African. Mean age +/- SD was 47.1 +/- 17.0 years. Approximately 86.4% of females and 54.5% of males were overweight/ obese. Dyslipidaemia was observed in 47.9% females and 29.2% males (P < 0.001). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 in 50.6% patients. CKD risk factors observed were: hypertension (77.8%), diabetes (29.8%), HIV (28.5%), glomerulonephritis (7.0%) and tubulointerstitial diseases (5.6%). Independent factors associated with eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 at presentation were: HIV [OR = 2.4 (1.3-4.2), P = 0.004] and hypertension [OR = 2.3 (1.3-4.2), P = 0.007].
Diabetes and HIV are prevalent in CKD patients at primary/regional level healthcare in South Africa. With registry data lacking, dedicated CKD clinics at lower healthcare levels may provide valuable data on CKD epidemiology including changes in aetiology. Primary healthcare practitioners are faced with advanced CKD patients in resource-poor settings, with limited opportunity for upward referral hence the need for nephrology outreach programs.
"Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects up to 15% of the adult population [1-4] and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is present in up to 90% of people with CKD [5,6] and is the most important modifiable risk factor in the clinical management of people with CKD [7-9]. Accurate blood pressure (BP) monitoring is therefore a critical component of the management of people with CKD both for risk stratification and for the appropriate use of anti-hypertensive therapy and lifestyle modification to manage BP to recommended levels . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate blood pressure monitoring is critical for the management of chronic kidney disease, but changes in management in secondary care clinics may be based on a single blood pressure reading, with a subsequent lack of accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate a fully automated sphygmomanometer for optimising the accuracy of blood pressure measurements in the setting of secondary care renal clinics.
Patients had routine blood pressure measurements with a calibrated DINAMAP PRO400 monitor in a clinical assessment room. Patients then underwent repeat assessment with a DINAMAP PRO400 monitor and BpTRU device and subsequent 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM).
The BpTRU systolic (+/- SD) reading (117.3 +/- 14.1 mmHg) was significantly lower than the routine clinic mean systolic blood pressure (143.8 +/- 15.5 mmHg; P < 0.001) and the repeat blood pressure taken with a DINAMAP PRO400 monitor in a quiet room (129.9 +/- 19.9 mmHg; P < 0.001). The routine clinic mean diastolic (82.4 +/- 11.2 mmHg) was significantly higher than the BpTRU reading (78.4 +/- 10.0 mmHg; P < 0.001). Clinic BpTRU measurements were not significantly different to the daytime mean or overall mean of 24 hour ABPM.
In patients with CKD, routine clinic blood pressure measurements were significantly higher than measurements using a BpTRU machine in a quiet room, but there was no significant difference in this setting between BpTRU readings and 24 hour ABPM. Adjusting clinic protocols to utilise the most accurate blood pressure technique available is a simple manoeuvre that could deliver major improvements in clinical practice.
"Control of hypertension is arguably the most important intervention for reducing the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in people with CKD, and to slow progression to later stages of CKD
[1,11-14]. However, there is evidence that optimum levels of blood pressure (BP) control are often not achieved among people with CKD, with consistent achievement of BP less than 140/90 observed in between 15 and 30% of patients (with as few as 13% achieving a 130/80 threshold)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poorly controlled hypertension is independently associated with mortality, cardiovascular risk and disease progression in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the UK, CKD stage 3 is principally managed in primary care, including blood pressure (BP) management. Controlling BP is key to improving outcomes in CKD. This study aimed to investigate associations of BP control in people with CKD stage 3.
1,741 patients with CKD 3 recruited from 32 general practices for the Renal Risk in Derby Study underwent medical history, clinical assessment and biochemistry testing. BP control was assessed by three standards: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Descriptive statistics were used to compare characteristics of people achieving and not achieving BP control. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with BP control.
The prevalence of hypertension was 88%. Among people with hypertension, 829/1426 (58.1%) achieved NICE BP targets, 512/1426 (35.9%) KDOQI targets and 859/1426 (60.2%) KDIGO targets. Smaller proportions of people with diabetes and/or albuminuria achieved hypertension targets. 615/1426 (43.1%) were only taking one antihypertensive agent. On multivariable analysis, BP control (NICE and KDIGO) was negatively associated with age (NICE odds ratio (OR) 0.27; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.17-0.43) 70--79 compared to <60), diabetes (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.25-0.43)), and albuminuria (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.42-0.74)). For the KDOQI target, there was also association with males (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.60-0.96)) but not diabetes (target not diabetes specific). Older people were less likely to achieve systolic targets (NICE target OR 0.17 (95%CI 0.09,0.32) p < 0.001) and more likely to achieve diastolic targets (OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.11,4.96) p < 0.001) for people >80 compared to < 60).
Suboptimal BP control was common in CKD patients with hypertension in this study, particularly those at highest risk of adverse outcomes due to diabetes and or albuminuria. This study suggests there is scope for improving BP control in people with CKD by using more antihypertensive agents in combination while considering issues of adherence and potential side effects.
BMC Family Practice 06/2013; 14(1):88. DOI:10.1186/1471-2296-14-88 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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