How do anisotropy and age affect fatigue and damage in cancellous bone?
ABSTRACT The fatigue behaviour of materials is of particular interest for the failure prediction of materials and structures exposed to cyclic loading. For trabecular bone structures only a few sets of lifetime data have been reported in the literature and structural measures are commonly not considered. The influence of load contributions not aligned with the main physiological axis remains unclear. Furthermore age effects on the fatigue behaviour are not well described. In the present study, different groups of human vertebral cancellous bone were exposed to cyclic compression. The inital modulus and therefore lifetimes were found to be highly dependent on age. The decrease in both with increasing age was much more pronounced in specimens which were not aligned with the main physiological axis. This implies that old bone is much more sensitive to (cyclic) failure loads in general but particularly to loads which are not coincident with the physiological main axis.
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ABSTRACT: The fatigue and fracture behavior of hard tissues are topics of considerable interest today. This special group of organic materials comprises the highly mineralized and load-bearing tissues of the human body, and includes bone, cementum, dentin and enamel. An understanding of their fatigue behavior and the influence of loading conditions and physiological factors (e.g. aging and disease) on the mechanisms of degradation are essential for achieving lifelong health. But there is much more to this topic than the immediate medical issues. There are many challenges to characterizing the fatigue behavior of hard tissues, much of which is attributed to size constraints and the complexity of their microstructure. The relative importance of the constituents on the type and distribution of defects, rate of coalescence, and their contributions to the initiation and growth of cracks, are formidable topics that have not reached maturity. Hard tissues also provide a medium for learning and a source of inspiration in the design of new microstructures for engineering materials. This article briefly reviews fatigue of hard tissues with shared emphasis on current understanding, the challenges and the unanswered questions.International Journal of Fatigue 09/2010; 32(9):1400-1412. · 1.98 Impact Factor