In vitro larval migration and kinetics of exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus larvae exposed to four tropical tanniniferous plant extracts.
ABSTRACT As for some temperate forage, some tropical tanniniferous plants (TTP) from browsing might represent an alternative to chemical anthelmintic. The anthelmintic effect of four TTP (Acacia pennatula, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Piscidia piscipula, Leucaena leucocephala) on Haemonchus contortus was measured using two in vitro assays. First, the effects of increasing concentrations of lyophilized extracts (150, 300, 600, 1200 microg/ml PBS) were tested on H. contortus larvae (L(3)) using the larval migration inhibition (LMI) test. An inhibitor of tannin, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP), was used to verify whether tannins were responsible for the AH effect. Secondly, the effects of extracts on larval exsheathment were examined. Larvae (L(3)) were in contact with extracts (1200 microg/ml) for 3h, and then were exposed to an artificial exsheathment procedure with observations of the process at 10 min intervals. A general lineal model (GLM) test was used to determine the dose effect in the LMI test and the difference of the percentage of exsheathed larvae between the control and the treatment groups. A Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine the effect of PVPP on LMI results. The LMI test showed a dose-dependent anthelmintic effect for A. pennatula, L. latisiliquum and L. leucocephala (P<0.01), which disappeared after PVPP addition, confirming the role of tannins. No effect was found for P. piscipula on H. contortus in the LMI test. However, all four plant extracts interfered with the process of L(3) exsheathment which might be involved as a mechanism of action of tannins on H. contortus larvae. A. pennatula, L. latisiliquum and L. leucocephala could be used as an anthelmintic for the control of H. contortus after confirmation based on in vivo studies.
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ABSTRACT: Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.Veterinary Parasitology 07/2011; 183(1-2):103-8. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of larval paralysis assay (LPA) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide-formazan (MTT-formazan) assay was compared to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of plant extracts. In this study, the methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) was evaluated for its activity against the infective-stage larvae (L(3)) of susceptible and resistant Haemonchus contortus strains using the two aforementioned assays. In both in vitro assays, the same serial concentrations of the extract were used, and the median lethal concentrations were determined to compare the sensitivity of both assays. The results revealed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the sensitivity of the LPA and the MTT-formazan assay. The MTT-formazan assay is more feasible for practical applications because it measured the L(3) mortality more accurately than LPA. This study may help find a suitable assay for investigating the anthelmintic activity of plant extracts against trichostrongylid nematodes.Parasitology Research 09/2012; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anthelmintic resistance has limited the ability to control the gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants and has therefore awakened an interest in the study of tanniferous plants as a source of anthelmintics. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Mimosa tenuiflora intake, a tanniferous plant that is fed to small ruminants in northeastern Brazil, on the larval establishment of Haemonchus contortus in sheep. In this experiment, 18 nematode-free sheep were divided into three groups (n=6) according to live weight. Group 1 was fed M. tenuiflora leaves; Group 2 was fed M. tenuiflora stems; Group 3 served as the control group and was fed Cynodon dactylon, a plant with low levels of tannins. The animals consumed the plants for 13 days (Day -7 to Day 5). On Day 0, the sheep were experimentally infected with 4500 third-stage H. contortus each. Five days after infection (Day 5), the sheep were slaughtered to count the worm burden and perform a histological analysis of the abomasum. The daily plant intake and the live weight gain of the animals were recorded. The groups that ingested M. tenuiflora leaves and stems consumed less dry matter than did those that ingested C. dactylon (P<0.05). The consumption of M. tenuiflora leaves did not reduce the L3 establishment of H. contortus compared to the control (P>0.05). The intake of M. tenuiflora stems tended toward decreasing larval establishment, but the reduction was not significant (P>0.05). No significant differences were observed in the mucosal cellular response and live weight gain among the groups. These data demonstrated that, with the protocol used, M. tenuiflora has no effect on larval establishment of H. contortus in sheep.Veterinary Parasitology 04/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor