Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of biosolids to an agricultural field. Sci Total Environ

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, Canada ON N5V 4T3.
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 4.1). 07/2008; 396(1):52-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.02.011
Source: PubMed


Municipal biosolids are a source of nutrients for crop production. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to minimize the risk of contamination of adjacent water resources with chemical or microbial agents that are of public or environmental health concern. In this field study, we applied biosolids slurry at a commercial rate using either subsurface injection or broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 22, 36 and 266 days post-application on 2 m(2) microplots to evaluate surface runoff of 9 model pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan. In runoff from the injected plots, concentrations of the model PPCPs were generally below the limits of quantitation. In contrast, in the broadcast application treatment, the concentrations of atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan on the day following application ranged from 70-1477 ng L(-1) in runoff and generally declined thereafter with first order kinetics. The total mass of PPCPs mobilized in surface runoff per m(2) of the field ranged from 0.63 microg for atenolol to 21.1 microg for ibuprofen. For ibuprofen and acetaminophen, concentrations in runoff first decreased and then increased, suggesting that these drugs were initially chemically or physically sequestered in the biosolids slurry, and subsequently released in the soil. Carbamazepine and triclosan were detected at low concentrations in a runoff event 266 days after broadcast application. Overall, this study showed that injection of biosolids slurry below the soil surface could effectively eliminate surface runoff of PPCPs.

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    • "The former is handled and applied as a liquid , whereas the latter is applied as a solid. The LMB is typically surface applied followed by incorporation, or injected directly into the soil profile (Topp et al., 2008b). The DMB is typically surface applied followed by incorporation, but equipment exists (Terratec Environmental Ltd., dewatered biosolids direct injection system) that can deposit extruded DMB directly into the soil profile (Edwards et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: In many jurisdictions land application of municipal biosolids is a valued source of nutrients for crop production. The practice must be managed to ensure that crops and adjacent water are not subject to contamination by pharmaceuticals or other organic contaminants. The broad spectrum antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ), and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen (NAP) are widely used and are carried in biosolids. In the present study, the effect of biosolids and depth of placement in the soil profile on the rates of TCS, TCC, CBZ, and NAP dissipation were evaluated under semi-field conditions. Aggregates of dewatered municipal biosolids (DMBs) supplemented with (14)C-labeled residues were applied either on the soil surface or in the subsurface of the soil profile, and incubated over several months under ambient outdoor conditions. The dissipation of TCS, TCC and NAP was significantly faster in sub-surface than surface applied biosolid aggregates. In contrast the dissipation rate for CBZ was the same in surface applied and incorporated aggregates. Overall, the present study has determined a significant effect of depth of placement on the dissipation rate of biodegradable molecules. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2015; 512-513:480-488. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.075 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "As an example, amoxicillin, sulfamethazine and trimethoprim, three antibiotics, show half-lives in soils of 1, 18.6 and 103 d, respectively (Boxall, 2008). Both sorption and degradation processes are also strongly influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, redox potential, pH, soil type, organic carbon content, clay minerals and soil bacteria (Topp et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Irrigation with reclaimed water is becoming a common practice in arid- and semi-arid regions as a consequence of structural water resource scarcity. This practice can lead to contamination of the vadose zone if sewage-derived contaminants are not removed properly. In the current work, we have characterized soils from the Guadalete River basin (SW Spain), which are often irrigated with reclaimed water from a nearby wastewater treatment plant and amended using sludge. Physico-chemical, mineralogical and hydraulic properties were measured in soil samples from this area (from surface up to 2m depth). Emerging contaminants (synthetic surfactants and pharmaceutically active compounds, or PhACs) were also determined. Synthetic surfactants, widely used in personal care products (PCPs), were found in a wide range of concentrations: 73-1300μgkg(-)(1) for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), 120-496μgkg(-)(1) for alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES), 19-1090μgkg(-)(1) for alcohol polyethoxylates (AEOs), and 155-280μgkg(-)(1) for nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs). The presence of surfactant homologues with longer alkyl chains was predominant due to their sorption capacity. A positive correlation was found between LAS and AEOs and soil organic carbon and clay content, respectively. Out of 64PhACs analyzed, only 7 were detected occasionally (diclofenac, metoprolol, fenofibrate, carbamazepine, clarithromycin, famotidine and hydrochlorothiazide), always at very low concentrations (from 0.1 to 1.3μgkg(-)(1)).
    Chemosphere 05/2014; 119. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.098 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "Strauch (2011) asserted that the effects of PPCPS on human toxicity irrespective of their concentration in the water supply are yet to be ascertained. Research conducted by Ternes et al. (2004) and Topp et al. (2008)) discovered that certain PPCPs, such as estrogenic compounds, have a very high bioaccumulation potential. This environmental bioaccumulation exacerbates the abnormal hormonal control causing reproductive impairments, decreased fecundity, increased incidence of breast and testosterone cancers, and persistent antibiotic resistance. "
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    ABSTRACT: There are growing concerns about the increasing trends of emerging micropollutants in the environment due to their potential negative impacts on natural ecosystems and humans. This has attracted attention from both governmental and non-governmental organisations worldwide. Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors are continuously being released consciously or unconsciously into water sources due to poor regulatory frameworks especially in the developing countries. The effects of these contaminants are poorly known. They are not easily biodegradable and have become an environmental nuisance and public health issue. This has heightened the risk of exposure to their deleterious effects in such countries where the majority of the population are still struggling to have access to good quality drinking water supplies and better sanitation. With the rising fear of short-and long-term impacts of the ever-increasing number of persistent recalcitrant organic compounds accumulating in the environment, their removal is gradually becoming an issue to the water treatment industry. Hence, there is a need to develop functional techniques for the management of water contaminated by these emerging contaminants so as to increase the availability and access to safe and good-quality drinking water. We conducted a narrative review on these emerging micropollutants and examined their various documented sources, effects, as well as recent techniques for their effective removal. This becomes necessary due to the increasing occurrence of these pollutants in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. These levels are expected to further increase in the coming years as a consequence of the ever-increasing population density which undoubtedly characterizes developing economies. Our findings show that the present reported treatment techniques in the literature such as biological oxidation/biodegradation, coagulation/flocculation, ozonation, electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, sedimentation, filtration, and activated carbon were not designed for removal of these newly identified contaminants, and as such, the techniques are not sufficient and unable to completely degrade the compounds. We therefore recommended the need for concerted efforts to develop better techniques, especially combined advanced oxidative methods to address the shortcomings of and growing challenge to current practices.
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