Dynamics of cholesterol exchange in the oxysterol binding protein family

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Journal of Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.96). 06/2008; 378(3):737-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2008.01.075
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The oxysterol-binding protein-related protein (ORP) family is essential to sterol transfer and sterol-dependent signal transduction in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of one ORP family member, yeast Osh4, is known in apo and sterol-bound states. In the bound state, a 29 residue N-terminal lid region covers the opening of the cholesterol-binding tunnel, preventing cholesterol exchange. Equilibrium and steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Osh4 were carried out to characterize the mechanism of cholesterol exchange. While most of the structural core was stable during the simulations, the lid was partly opened in the apo equilibrium MD simulation. Helix alpha 7, which undergoes the largest conformational change in the crystallized bound and apo states, is conformationally coupled to the opening of the lid. The movement of alpha 7 helps create a docking site for donor or acceptor membranes in the open state. In the steered MD simulations of cholesterol dissociation, we observed complete opening of the lid covering the cholesterol-binding tunnel. Cholesterol was found to exit the binding pocket in a step-wise process involving (i) the breaking of water-mediated hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts within the binding pocket, (ii) opening of the lid covering the binding pocket, and (iii) breakage of transient cholesterol contacts with the rim of the pocket and hydrophobic residues on the interior face of the lid.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) homologues, ORPs, are implicated in lipid homeostatic control, vesicle transport, and cell signaling. We analyzed here the quantity of ORP mRNAs in human subcutaneous (s.c.) and visceral adipose depots, as well as in the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell model. All of the ORP mRNAs were present in the s.c and visceral adipose tissues, and the two depots shared an almost identical ORP mRNA expression pattern. SGBS adipocytes displayed a similar pattern, suggesting that the adipose tissue ORP expression pattern mainly derives from adipocytes. During SGBS cell adipogenic differentiation, ORP2, ORP3, ORP4, ORP7, and ORP8 mRNAs were down-regulated, while ORP11 was induced. To assess the impacts of ORPs on adipocyte differentiation, ORP3 and ORP8, proteins down-regulated during adipogenesis, were overexpressed in differentiating SGBS adipocytes, while ORP11, a protein induced during adipogenesis, was silenced. ORP8 overexpression resulted in reduced expression of the aP2 mRNA, while down-regulation of adiponectin and aP2 was observed in ORP11 silenced cells. Furthermore, ORP8 overexpression or silencing of ORP11 markedly decreased cellular triglyceride storage. These data identify the patterns of ORP expression in human adipose depots and SGBS adipocytes, and provide the first evidence for a functional impact of ORPs on the adipocyte phenotype.
    PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e45352. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0045352 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Kes1 OSBP (oxysterol-binding protein) is a key regulator of membrane trafficking through the TGN (trans-Golgi network) and endosomal membranes. We demonstrated recently that Kes1 acts as a sterol-regulated rheostat for TGN/endosomal phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signalling. Kes1 utilizes its dual lipid-binding activities to integrate endosomal lipid metabolism with TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex 1)-dependent proliferative pathways and transcriptional control of nutrient signalling.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 04/2012; 40(2):469-73. DOI:10.1042/BST20120012 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lipids are unevenly distributed within eukaryotic cells, thus defining organelle identity. How non-vesicular transport mechanisms generate these lipid gradients between membranes remains a central question. Here using quantitative, real-time lipid transport assays, we demonstrate that Osh4p, a sterol/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4)P) exchanger of the ORP/Osh family, transports sterol against its gradient between two membranes by dissipating the energy of a PI(4)P gradient. Sterol transport is sustained through the maintenance of this PI(4)P gradient by the PI(4)P-phosphatase Sac1p. Differences in lipid packing between membranes can stabilize sterol gradients generated by Osh4p and modulate its lipid exchange capacity. The ability of Osh4p to recognize sterol and PI(4)P via distinct modalities and the dynamics of its N-terminal lid govern its activity. We thus demonstrate that an intracellular lipid transfer protein actively functions to create a lipid gradient between membranes.
    Nature Communications 04/2015; 6. DOI:10.1038/ncomms7671 · 10.74 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 31, 2014