Eating behaviours and obesity in the adult population of Spain

Unidad de Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Nuestra Señora del Prado, Ctra. De Madrid, Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.34). 05/2008; 100(5):1142-8. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114508966137
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the association between several eating behaviours and obesity, data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted with 34,974 individuals aged 25-64 years, representative of the non-institutionalised Spanish population. Obesity was defined as BMI >or= 30 kg/m2. Study associations were summarised with OR obtained from logistic regression, with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. The results showed that those skipping breakfast were more likely to be obese, both in men (OR 1.58; 95 % CI 1.29, 1.93) and women (OR 1.53; 95 % CI 1.15, 2.03). Moreover, obesity was more prevalent in those having only two meals per day than in those having three or four meals in men (OR 1.63; 95 % CI 1.37, 1.95) and women (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.62). Also, snacking was associated with obesity in women (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.95). However, no association was observed between obesity and having one or more of the main meals away from home, in either sex. In conclusion, skipping breakfast and eating frequency were associated with obesity. The lack of association between eating away from home and obesity is in contrast to most previous research conducted in Anglo-Saxon countries. Differences in the type of establishment frequented when eating out or in the characteristics of restaurant customers in a Mediterranean population might explain these conflicting results.

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Available from: Pilar Guallar-Castillón, Feb 13, 2014
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    • "Both meals are consumed by less than half of the individuals in our sample, with more women partaking of these meals than men. The studies conducted in the United States and in Spain, which associate obesity with eating only two meals a day as opposed to three or four meals (Kerver et al., 2006; Marín-Guerrero et al., 2008), support the view that having a higher number of meals is healthier. Our results reveal associations between healthy FCHs and the forenoon and the afternoon meal. "
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    ABSTRACT: Number of pages (not including this page): 8 Please find attached the following files: • proof of your article in Public Health Nutrition • proofreading symbols • offprint order form Print your proof and use the proofreading symbols to mark any corrections. Please be aware, however, that excessive changes, such as rewriting sections of your paper, may result in a charge. If you are required to respond to any queries from our copyeditor, these will be listed at the end of your paper proof and referred to by a mark in the margin. Return your marked proof, together with the completed offprint order form, by mail, within 3 days of receipt of this email, to our proofreader, Gill Watling, at the following address: UK Or, if only minimal corrections are required you can email these to Please clearly indicate any corrections required by page, column and line reference. For authors outside the UK, I would encourage you to return your proofs by courier, but this would be at your own expense and is by no means obligatory. Please note: • You are responsible for correcting your proofs. Errors not found may appear in the published journal. • The proof is sent to you for correction of typographical errors only. Revision of the substance of the text is not permitted, unless discussed with the editor of the journal. • Please answer carefully any queries raised from the typesetter. • A new copy of a figure must be provided if correction of anything other than a typographical error introduced by the typesetter is required.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesized that snacking could be a major factor in the development of obesity. However, the relationship between snacking and the increment in body weight remains controversial. Moreover, longitudinal studies about this issue are scarce. Thus, our objective was to prospectively assess the relationship between snacking and weight gain and obesity in a middle-aged free-living population. Longitudinal prospective Spanish dynamic cohort (10,162 university graduates; mean age: 39 years) followed-up for an average of 4.6 years. Dietary habits were ascertained through a validated 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Usual snackers were defined as those participants who answered affirmatively when asked in the baseline assessment if they usually eat between meals. Validated self-reported weight and body mass index were collected at baseline and during follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, self-reported between-meal snacking was significantly associated with a higher risk of substantial weight gain (> or =3kg/year; p<0.001;> or =5kg/year, p<0.001;> or =10% baseline weight, p<0.001). Among participants with a baseline body mass index lower than 30kg/m(2) (n: 9709) we observed 258 new cases of obesity. Usual snackers presented an adjusted 69% higher risk of becoming obese during follow-up (Hazard Ratio: 1.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.30-2.20). Our results support the hypothesis that self-reported between-meal snacking can be a potential risk factor for obesity.
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