Eating behaviours and obesity in the adult population of Spain

Unidad de Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Nuestra Señora del Prado, Ctra. De Madrid, Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 05/2008; 100(5):1142-8. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114508966137
Source: PubMed


To examine the association between several eating behaviours and obesity, data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted with 34,974 individuals aged 25-64 years, representative of the non-institutionalised Spanish population. Obesity was defined as BMI >or= 30 kg/m2. Study associations were summarised with OR obtained from logistic regression, with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. The results showed that those skipping breakfast were more likely to be obese, both in men (OR 1.58; 95 % CI 1.29, 1.93) and women (OR 1.53; 95 % CI 1.15, 2.03). Moreover, obesity was more prevalent in those having only two meals per day than in those having three or four meals in men (OR 1.63; 95 % CI 1.37, 1.95) and women (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.62). Also, snacking was associated with obesity in women (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.95). However, no association was observed between obesity and having one or more of the main meals away from home, in either sex. In conclusion, skipping breakfast and eating frequency were associated with obesity. The lack of association between eating away from home and obesity is in contrast to most previous research conducted in Anglo-Saxon countries. Differences in the type of establishment frequented when eating out or in the characteristics of restaurant customers in a Mediterranean population might explain these conflicting results.

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Available from: Pilar Guallar-Castillón, Feb 13, 2014
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    • "Both meals are consumed by less than half of the individuals in our sample, with more women partaking of these meals than men. The studies conducted in the United States and in Spain, which associate obesity with eating only two meals a day as opposed to three or four meals (Kerver et al., 2006; Marín-Guerrero et al., 2008), support the view that having a higher number of meals is healthier. Our results reveal associations between healthy FCHs and the forenoon and the afternoon meal. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet, and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1,332 Spanish adults aged between 20-79 was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We have evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits.
    Appetite 09/2014; 83:63-68. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.08.012 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "Since it has been common not to consume any calories for breakfast in many Mediterranean regions [14], [15], [29], and to accumulate calories to a large lunch or meal in the evening, we compared such a diet and eating pattern to the low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets in our study. While black coffee for breakfast had no discernible effects of the risk factors measured, the Mediterranean-style diet induced a substantial increase in insulin after the lunch which apparently was large enough to keep glucose excursions to be similar as during the low-fat diet containing much less calories at this single meal. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM). However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets. To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM. A low-fat diet (45-56 energy-% from carbohydrates), and a low-carbohydrate diet (16-24 energy-% from carbohydrates) was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32-35 energy-% from carbohydrates) in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025-1080 kCal in men and 905-984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision. Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (p<0.0005 for both AUC). The insulin-response following the single Mediterranean-style lunch-meal was more pronounced than during the low-fat diet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35±2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12±5.2, p = 0.001) while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003). The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single large Mediterranean style lunch-meal in NIDDM might be advantageous from a metabolic perspective. NCT01522157 NCT01522157.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79324. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079324 · 3.23 Impact Factor
    • "On the other hand, with a higher BMI, we observed omission of a number of meals to lose weight. Although its proved skipping main meal were associated with obesity.[33] Therefore we should train our women about healthy weight management. "
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    ABSTRACT: Considering the importance and prevalence of obesity and the desire to lose weight, especially among women, this study intended to investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index, body satisfaction, and weight control behavior among women employees in Isfahan. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 women who were selected by stratified random sampling method among employees at Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. The data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised two sections: Demographic Tool and Body Satisfaction Tool (7 items), Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Age, marital status, educational level, and multiparity were significantly correlated with body size satisfaction. Seventy-five participants were dissatisfied with their weight and 60.5% reported a desire to lose weight; 92.15% of women studied had participated in a healthy dieting behavior and 10.8% of them had participated in an unhealthy one during the past six months. There was an inverse correlation between body satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) (r = -0.64, P = 0.001). Ninety percent of participants had at least one of the dieting behaviors. There was an inverse significant relationship between body satisfaction and dieting behaviors (r = -0.19, P = 0.001). Due to the importance of the prevention of obesity and the necessity of having a normal BMI in order to prevent subsequent complications, precise self-evaluation of body size can be used to focus on designing and conducting public health programs, especially for women.
    International journal of preventive medicine 04/2013; 4(4):467-74.
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