Macromolecular white matter abnormalities in geriatric depression: a magnetization transfer imaging study.
ABSTRACT Geriatric depression consists of complex and heterogeneous behaviors unlikely to be caused by a single brain lesion. However, abnormalities in specific brain structures and their interconnections may confer vulnerability to the development of late-life depression. The objective of this study was to identify subtle white matter abnormalities in late-life depression.
The authors used magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, a technique that is thought primarily to reflect myelin integrity, to examine the hypothesis that individuals with late-life depression would exhibit white matter abnormalities in frontostriatal and limbic regions.
The study was conducted in a university-based, geriatric psychiatry clinic.
Fifty-five older patients with major depression and 24 elderly comparison subjects were assessed.
Voxel-based analysis of MTR data were conducted with a general linear model using age as a covariate.
Relative to comparison subjects, patients demonstrated lower MTR in multiple left hemisphere frontostriatal and limbic regions, including white matter lateral to the lentiform nuclei, dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate, subcallosal, periamygdalar, insular, and posterior cingulate regions. Depressed patients had lower MTR in additional left hemisphere locales including the thalamus, splenium of the corpus callosum, inferior parietal, precuneus, and middle occipital white matter regions.
These findings suggest that geriatric depression may be characterized by reduced myelin integrity in specific aspects of frontostriatal and limbic networks, and complement diffusion tensor studies of geriatric depression that indicate decreased organization of white matter fibers in specific frontal and temporal regions.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of early suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) on brain structure and neurocognitive outcomes. We conducted an observational study of subjects within 1 year of HIV infection. Ten ART-naïve and 10 ART-suppressed individuals were matched for age and infection duration and age-matched to 10 HIV-seronegative controls. Quantitative brain imaging and neurocognitive data were analyzed. Subjects on suppressive ART had diminished corpus callosum structural integrity on macromolecular and microstructural imaging, higher cerebrospinal fluid percent, higher depression scores, and lower functional performance. Early suppressive ART may alter the trajectory of neurological progression of HIV infection, particularly in the corpus callosum.Journal of NeuroVirology 06/2014; 20(5). DOI:10.1007/s13365-014-0261-7 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Apathy is a prominent feature of geriatric depression that predicts poor clinical outcomes and hinders depression treatment. Yet little is known about the neurobiology and treatment of apathy in late-life depression. This study examined apathy prevalence in a clinical sample of depressed elderly, response of apathy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, and neuroanatomical correlates that distinguished responders from non-responders and healthy controls. Methods Participants included 45 non-demented, elderly with major depression and 43 elderly comparison individuals. After a 2-week single-blind placebo period, depressed participants received escitalopram 10 mg daily for 12 weeks. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) and 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were administered at baseline and 12 weeks. MRI scans were acquired at baseline for concurrent structural and diffusion tensor imaging of anterior cingulate gray matter and associated white matter tracts. Results 35.5% of depressed patients suffered from apathy. This declined to 15.6% (p<0.1) following treatment, but 43% of initial sufferers continued to report significant apathy. Improvement of apathy with SSRI was independent of change in depression but correlated with larger left posterior subgenual cingulate volumes and greater fractional anisotropy of left uncinate fasciculi. Limitations Modest sample size, no placebo control, post-hoc secondary analysis, use of 1.5T MRI scanner Conclusions While prevalent in geriatric depression, apathy is separable from depression with regards to medication response. Structural abnormalities of the posterior subgenual cingulate and uncinate fasciculus may perpetuate apathetic states by interfering with prefrontal cortical recruitment of limbic activity essential to motivated behavior.Journal of Affective Disorders 09/2014; 166:179–186. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.008 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although sub-regional analysis methods of the corpus callosum (CC) have been developed, there has been no in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study on a sub-regional volume analysis of the CC of late-onset depression (LOD). The aim of this study was to investigate the CC volume differences between LOD subjects and healthy elderly controls using a sub-regional analysis technique. Forty subjects with LOD and thirty nine group-matched healthy control subjects underwent 3T MRI scanning, and sub-regional volumes of the CC were measured and compared between the groups. The volumes of total (F=5.8, p=0.001), the anterior (F=5.2, p=0.001) and the posterior CC (F=5.1, p=0.001) were significantly reduced in the LOD group as compared to the control group. We measured cognitive functions in several different domains (language functions, verbal learning, visuospatial functions, delayed recall, memory consolidation, recognition memory, and executive functions) through the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease. The anterior CC volume in the LOD group showed significant positive correlation with the verbal fluency scores. The posterior CC volume in the LOD group was positively correlated significantly with the word list memory, the word list recall and the constructional praxis scores. This study is the first to elaborate the sub-regional volume differences of the CC between controls and LOD patients. These structural changes in the CC might be at the core of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms in LOD.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.07.008 · 4.03 Impact Factor