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    • "These medications are Lipid-lowering drugs like HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins), Fibric acid derivatives (gemfibrozil), and Niacin. In addition, AZT, Cyclosporine, Chloroquine, and Colchicine are also found to increase the CK’s (Abdel-Hamid et al., 2008; Baker et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Muscle diseases can constitute a large variety of both acquired and hereditary disorders. Myopathies in systemic disease results from several different disease processes including endocrine, inflammatory, paraneoplastic, infectious, drug- and toxin-induced, critical illness myopathy, metabolic, and myopathies with other systemic disorders. Patients with systemic myopathies often present acutely or sub acutely. On the other hand, familial myopathies or dystrophies generally present in a chronic fashion with exceptions of metabolic myopathies where symptoms on occasion can be precipitated acutely. Most of the inflammatory myopathies can have a chance association with malignant lesions; the incidence appears to be specifically increased only in patients with dermatomyositis. In dealing with myopathies associated with systemic illnesses, the focus will be on the acquired causes. Management is beyond the scope of this chapter. Prognosis is based upon the underlying cause and, most of the time, carries a good prognosis. In order to approach a patient with suspected myopathy from systemic disease, a stepwise approach is utilized.
    Frontiers in Neurology 08/2011; 2:49. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2011.00049
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    ABSTRACT: The National Lipid Association's Muscle Safety Expert Panel was charged with the duty of examining the definitions for statin-associated muscle adverse events, development of a clinical index to assess myalgia, and the use of diagnostic neuromuscular studies to investigate muscle adverse events. We provide guidance as to when a patient should be considered for referral to neuromuscular specialists and indications for the performance of a skeletal muscle biopsy. Based on this review of evidence, we developed an algorithm for the evaluation and treatment of patients who may be intolerant to statins as the result of adverse muscle events. The panel was composed of clinical cardiologists, clinical lipidologists, an exercise physiologist, and a neuromuscular specialist.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 05/2014; 8(3 Suppl):S58-71. DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2014.03.004 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial cytopathies ultimately lead to a reduction in aerobic energy transduction, depletion of alternative energy stores, increased oxidative stress, apoptosis and necrosis. Specific combinations of nutraceutical compounds can target many of the aforementioned biochemical pathways. Antioxidants combined with cofactors that can bypass specific electron transport chain defects and the provision of alternative energy sources represents a specific targeted strategy. To date, there has been only one randomized double-blind clinical trial using a combination nutraceutial therapy and it showed that the combination of creatine monohydrate, coenzyme Q10, and alpha-lipoic acid reduced lactate and markers of oxidative stress in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies. Future studies need to use larger numbers of patients with well defined clinical and surrogate marker outcomes to clarify the potential role for combination nutraceuticals ("mitochondrial cocktail") as a therapy for mitochondrial cytopathies.
    Advanced drug delivery reviews 10/2008; 60(13-14):1561-7. DOI:10.1016/j.addr.2008.05.001 · 15.04 Impact Factor
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