Dam1 complexes go it alone on disassembling microtubules.
ABSTRACT Kinetochores maintain a mechanical grip on disassembling microtubule plus ends, possibly through a 16-member Dam1 ring that acts as a sliding clamp. It turns out, however, that a ring is not required for maintaining grip: individual Dam1 complexes in vitro can diffuse on the microtubule lattice and track shortening microtubule tips.
SourceAvailable from: Yannick Gachet[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Dam1 complex is a kinetochore component that couples chromosomes to the dynamic ends of kinetochore microtubules (kMTs). Work in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that the Dam1 complex forms a 16-unit ring encircling and tracking the tip of a MT in vitro, consistent with its cellular function as a coupler. Dam1 also forms smaller, nonring patches in vitro that track the dynamic ends of MTs. However, the identity of Dam1's functional form in vivo remains unknown. Here we report a comprehensive in vivo characterization of Dam1 in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In addition to their dense localizations on kinetochores and spindle MTs during mitosis, we identify that Dam1 is also localized onto cytoplasmic MTs as discrete spots in interphase, providing the unique opportunity to analyze Dam1 oligomers at the single-particle resolution in live cells. Such analysis shows that each oligomer contains one to five copies of Dam1, and is able to "switch-rail" while moving along MTs, precluding the possibility of a 16-unit encircling structure. Dam1 patches track the plus ends of the shortening, but not the elongating, MTs and retard MT depolymerization. Together with Mal3, the EB1-like MT-interacting protein, cytoplasmic Dam1 plays an important role in maintaining proper cell shape. In mitosis, kinetochore-associated Dam1 appears to facilitate kMT depolymerization. Together, our findings suggest that patches, instead of rings, are the physiologically functional forms of Dam1 in pombe. Our findings help establish the benchmark parameters of the Dam1 coupler and elucidate the mechanism of its functions.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2010; 107(30):13330-5. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1004887107 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Short regions of overlap between ends of antiparallel microtubules are central elements within bipolar microtubule arrays. Although their formation requires motors, recent in vitro studies demonstrated that stable overlaps cannot be generated by molecular motors alone. Motors either slide microtubules along each other until complete separation or, in the presence of opposing motors, generate oscillatory movements. Here, we show that Ase1, a member of the conserved MAP65/PRC1 family of microtubule-bundling proteins, enables the formation of stable antiparallel overlaps through adaptive braking of Kinesin-14-driven microtubule-microtubule sliding. As overlapping microtubules start to slide apart, Ase1 molecules become compacted in the shrinking overlap and the sliding velocity gradually decreases in a dose-dependent manner. Compaction is driven by moving microtubule ends that act as barriers to Ase1 diffusion. Quantitative modelling showed that the molecular off-rate of Ase1 is sufficiently low to enable persistent overlap stabilization over tens of minutes. The finding of adaptive braking demonstrates that sliding can be slowed down locally to stabilize overlaps at the centre of bipolar arrays, whereas sliding proceeds elsewhere to enable network self-organization.Nature Cell Biology 09/2011; 13(10):1259-64. DOI:10.1038/ncb2323 · 20.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During mitosis, kinetochores attach to microtubule plus ends, thus allowing dynamic microtubules to properly segregate chromosomes. How this type of 'end-on' attachment between microtubule plus ends and kinetochores is formed and maintained is unclear. CENP-E, a kinesin-7 family member, is now shown to have a role in associating kinetochores with dynamic microtubule plus ends.Nature Cell Biology 09/2013; 15(9):1030-2. DOI:10.1038/ncb2836 · 20.06 Impact Factor