Impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and delta on adiposity in toddlers and preschoolers in the GENESIS Study.

Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Institute of Diet, Exercise and Lifestyle (IDEAL), University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 4.39). 05/2008; 16(4):913-8. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2008.1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) are promising candidate genes for obesity. Associations between adiposity-related phenotypes and genetic variation in PPAR gamma (Pro12Ala and C1431T), as well as PPAR delta (T+294C) were assessed in 2,102 Greek children aged 1-6 years, as part of a large-scale epidemiological study (Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In preSchoolers). In girls aged 3-4 years, the Ala12 allele was associated with higher mid-upper arm (P = 0.010) and hip (P = 0.005) circumferences, as well as subscapular (P = 0.008) and total skinfolds (P = 0.011) that explained 2.0, 3.7, 2.1, and 1.9% of the phenotypic variance, respectively, while the T1431 allele was associated with higher mean values for waist circumference (P = 0.018) and suprailiac skinfold (P = 0.017), genotype accounting for 1.6% of the variance in both phenotypes. No significant effects of PPAR delta T+294C polymorphism or the interaction of the PPAR delta and PPAR gamma variants on adiposity-related phenotypes were observed in any age group or gender. Haplotype-based analysis including both PPAR gamma polymorphisms revealed that in girls aged 3-4 years, the Ala-T haplotype was associated with higher waist (P = 0.014) and hip (P = 0.007) circumferences compared to the common Pro-C haplotype. The PPAR gamma Pro12Ala and C1431T polymorphisms are associated with increased adiposity during early childhood in a gender- and age-specific manner and independently of the PPAR delta T+294C polymorphism.

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    ABSTRACT: Aim Identification of metabolic and genetic factors capable to mediate progression from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) through impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in childhood obesity. Patients and methods Three groups of obese children with NGT (n = 54), IGT (n = 35), and T2D (n = 62) were evaluated. A control group of non-obese normal children (n = 210) was also studied. In obese patients, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed using HOMA-IR index. Insulin sensitivity (IS) was assessed according to the Matsuda formula. Genomic DNA from obese and control children was genotyped for genetic variants of PPARG, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, FTO, TCF7L2, and KCNJ11 using a real-time PCR strategy. The unpaired Student's t-test and Kruskal–Wallis one-way test were used to compare quantitative data in two and more groups. To assess the extent to which the various genetic variants were associated with pathology, ORs (odds ratios) and 95% CI (confidence interval) were estimated. Results In T2D children, HOMA-IR value (7.5 ± 3.1) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that in IGT (4.21 ± 2.25) and NGT (4.1 ± 2.4) subjects. The Matsuda IS index was significantly increased in normoglycemic patients compared to IGT individuals (2.8 ± 1.75 vs. 2.33 ± 1.2, P < 0.05). The Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARG was significantly associated with obesity (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.19–2.55, P = 0.004) and T2D in obesity (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.24–3.26, P = 0.004). Conclusion IR is a major risk factor that mediates progression from NGT to clinical T2D in Russian obese children. This progression may be genetically influenced by the Pro12Ala variant of PPARG.
    Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical Research and Reviews 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.dsx.2014.07.002
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: the effect of breastfeeding over the body mass components still demands analyses aiming to further investigate the body composition evolution in the after-breastfeeding childhood. Objective: analyze the influence of breastfeeding (BF) over the body composition of children under 3 years old. Methods: 760 children between zero and 3 years old were selected from the data of the longitudinal, home-based study “Saúde das Crianças de São Paulo II” [“São Paulo’s Children Health II”] (1995-1997). The outcome variables used were the anthropometric indexes BMI-for-age (ZBI) and triceps skinfold-for-age (ZDI) expressed in Z-scores based on the WHO reference curve. Panel regression models were used in the analyses, with data from the 3 visits, adjusted by: birth weight, mother’s educational level and mother’s age. Results:there was no association between breastfeeding and ZBI after multiple adjustments. There was inverse association between BF duration and the ZDI index. The interaction between the mother educational level and the BF duration revealed the protective effect of higher educational level over ZDI, when isolated. The mean nutritional indexes showed dose-response effect inversely proportional to the BF duration. Conclusion: breastfeeding showed protective effect against the mean body fat increase in children younger than 3 years.
  • 01/2011; Springer.


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Jul 28, 2014