Article

HMG-box domain stimulation of RAG1/2 cleavage activity is metal ion dependent.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE, USA.
BMC Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 2.8). 02/2008; 9:32. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-9-32
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT RAG1 and RAG2 initiate V(D)J recombination by assembling a synaptic complex with a pair of antigen receptor gene segments through interactions with their flanking recombination signal sequence (RSS), and then introducing a DNA double-strand break at each RSS, separating it from the adjacent coding segment. While the RAG proteins are sufficient to mediate RSS binding and cleavage in vitro, these activities are stimulated by the architectural DNA binding and bending factors HMGB1 and HMGB2. Two previous studies (Bergeron et al., 2005, and Dai et al., 2005) came to different conclusions regarding whether only one of the two DNA binding domains of HMGB1 is sufficient to stimulate RAG-mediated binding and cleavage of naked DNA in vitro. Here we test whether this apparent discrepancy is attributed to the choice of divalent metal ion and the concentration of HMGB1 used in the cleavage reaction.
We show here that single HMG-box domains of HMGB1 stimulate RAG-mediated RSS cleavage in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of Mn2+, but not Mg2+. Interestingly, the inability of a single HMG-box domain to stimulate RAG-mediated RSS cleavage in Mg2+ is overcome by the addition of partner RSS to promote synapsis. Furthermore, we show that mutant forms of HMGB1 which otherwise fail to stimulate RAG-mediated RSS cleavage in Mg2+ can be substantially rescued when Mg2+ is replaced with Mn2+.
The conflicting data published previously in two different laboratories can be substantially explained by the choice of divalent metal ion and abundance of HMGB1 in the cleavage reaction. The observation that single HMG-box domains can promote RAG-mediated 23-RSS cleavage in Mg2+ in the presence, but not absence, of partner RSS suggests that synaptic complex assembly in vitro is associated with conformational changes that alter how the RAG and/or HMGB1 proteins bind and bend DNA in a manner that functionally replaces the role of one of the HMG-box domains in RAG-HMGB1 complexes assembled on a single RSS.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
93 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of interaction of DNA with nonhistone chromosomal protein HMGB1 and linker histone H1 have been studied by means of circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopy. Both proteins are located in the internucleosomal regions of chromatin. It is demonstrated that the properties of DNA-protein complexes depend on the protein content and cannot be considered as a mere summing up of the effects of individual protein components. Interaction of the HMGB1 and H1 proteins is shown with DNA to be cooperative rather than competitive. Lysine-rich histone H1 facilitates the binding of HMGB1 to DNA by screening the negatively charged groups of the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and dicarboxylic amino acid residues in the C-terminal domain of HMGB1. The observed joint action of HMGB1 and H1 stimulates DNA condensation with the formation of anisotropic DNA-protein complexes with typical ψ-type CD spectra. Structural organization of the complexes depends not only on DNA-protein interactions but also on interaction between the HMGB1 and H1 protein molecules bound to DNA. Manganese ions significantly modify the mode of interactions between components in the triple DNA-HMGB1-H1 complex. The binding of Mn2+ ions weakens DNA-protein interactions and strengthens protein-protein interactions, which promote DNA condensation and formation of large DNA-protein particles in solution. KeywordsCD spectroscopy–DNA–DNA-protein interactions–linker histone H1–manganese ions–nonhistone protein HMGB1
    Molecular Biology 01/2011; 45(2):318-326. · 0.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: V(D)J recombination assembles immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes during lymphocyte development through a series of carefully orchestrated DNA breakage and rejoining events. DNA cleavage requires a series of protein-DNA complexes containing the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins and recombination signals that flank the recombining gene segments. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the function and domain organization of the RAG proteins, the composition and structure of RAG-DNA complexes, and the pathways that lead to the formation of these complexes. We also consider the functional significance of RAG-mediated histone recognition and ubiquitin ligase activities, and the role played by RAG in ensuring proper repair of DNA breaks made during V(D)J recombination. Finally, we propose a model for the formation of RAG-DNA complexes that involves anchoring of RAG1 at the recombination signal nonamer and RAG2-dependent surveillance of adjoining DNA for suitable spacer and heptamer sequences.
    Annual Review of Genetics 11/2010; 45:167-202. · 17.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During V(D)J recombination, RAG (recombination-activating gene) complex cleaves DNA based on sequence specificity. Besides its physiological function, RAG has been shown to act as a structure-specific nuclease. Recently, we showed that the presence of cytosine within the single-stranded region of heteroduplex DNA is important when RAGs cleave on DNA structures. In the present study, we report that heteroduplex DNA containing a bubble region can be cleaved efficiently when present along with a recombination signal sequence (RSS) in cis or trans configuration. The sequence of the bubble region influences RAG cleavage at RSS when present in cis. We also find that the kinetics of RAG cleavage differs between RSS and bubble, wherein RSS cleavage reaches maximum efficiency faster than bubble cleavage. In addition, unlike RSS, RAG cleavage at bubbles does not lead to cleavage complex formation. Finally, we show that the "nonamer binding region," which regulates RAG cleavage on RSS, is not important during RAG activity in non-B DNA structures. Therefore, in the current study, we identify the possible mechanism by which RAG cleavage is regulated when it acts as a structure-specific nuclease.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 11/2011; 415(3):475-88. · 3.91 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
0 Downloads
Available from