To evaluate risk factors and predictors of cerebrospinal ventricular shunt revisions in children.
A retrospective, longitudinal cohort of 1307 children ages 0 to 18 years undergoing initial ventricular shunt placement in the year 2000, with follow-up through 2005, from 32 freestanding children's hospitals within the Pediatric Health Information Systems database was studied. Rates of ventricular shunt revision were compared with patient demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics with use of bivariate and multivariate regression accounting for hospital clustering.
Thirty-seven percent of children required at least one shunt revision within 5 years of initial shunt placement; 20% of children required two or more revisions. Institutional rates of first shunt revision ranged from 20 to 70% of initial shunts placed among the 32 hospitals in the cohort. Hospitals where one to 20 initial shunt placements per year experienced the highest initial shunt revision rate (42%). Hospitals performing over 83 initial shunt placements per year experienced the lowest revision rate (22%). We found that children undergoing shunt placement in the Midwest were more likely to experience multiple shunt revisions (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.47) after controlling for hospital volume, shunt type, age, and diagnosis associated with initial shunt placement.
Higher hospital volume of initial shunt placement was associated with lower revision rates. Substantial hospital variation in the rates of ventricular shunt revision exists among children's hospitals. Future prospective studies are needed to examine the reasons for the variability in shunt revision rates among hospitals, including differences in specific processes of care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reported rates of CSF shunt infection vary widely across studies. The study objective was to determine the CSF shunt infection rates after initial shunt placement at multiple US pediatric hospitals. The authors hypothesized that infection rates between hospitals would vary widely even after adjustment for patient, hospital, and surgeon factors.
This retrospective cohort study included children 0-18 years of age with uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placement performed between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2005, and recorded in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) longitudinal administrative database from 41 children's hospitals. For each child with 24 months of follow-up, subsequent CSF shunt infections and procedures were determined.
The PHIS database included 7071 children with uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placement during this time period. During the 24 months of follow-up, these patients had a total of 825 shunt infections and 4434 subsequent shunt procedures. Overall unadjusted 24-month CSF shunt infection rates were 11.7% per patient and 7.2% per procedure. Unadjusted 24-month cumulative incidence rates for each hospital ranged from 4.1 to 20.5% per patient and 2.5-12.3% per procedure. Factors significantly associated with infection (p < 0.05) included young age, female sex, African-American race, public insurance, etiology of intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory complex chronic condition, subsequent revision procedures, hospital volume, and surgeon case volume. Malignant lesions and trauma as etiologies were protective. Infection rates for each hospital adjusted for these factors decreased to 8.8-12.8% per patient and 1.4-5.3% per procedure.
Infections developed in > 11% of children who underwent uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placements within 24 months. Patient, hospital, and surgeon factors contributed somewhat to the wide variation in CSF shunt infection rates across hospitals. Additional factors may contribute to variation in CSF shunt infection rates between centers, but further study is needed. Benchmarking and future prospective multicenter studies of CSF shunt infection will need to incorporate these and other patient, hospital, and surgeon factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controversy exists over surgical procedure choice for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children. Either ureteral reimplantation (UR) or a newer procedure, endoscopic injection (EI), may be chosen; however, the factors that determine procedure choice for any individual patient are unclear. The objective of this study was to identify patient and hospital factors associated with the choice of EI for children undergoing antireflux surgery.
We searched the Pediatric Health Information System, a national database collected by freestanding children's hospitals. We identified children aged <18 years with primary VUR who underwent surgery (UR or EI) between 2003 and 2008. We used multivariate logistic regression models to evaluate whether the type of procedure performed was associated with hospital-level factors including individual hospital, hospital region, size, and teaching status, as well as patient features including age, race, gender, and insurance type.
We identified 15026 children with primary VUR who underwent antireflux surgery between 2003 and 2008. Of these, 3611 children (24%) were treated at hospitals that performed reimplant only. Among children treated at institutions offering both procedures, 5562 (49%) underwent injection and 5853 (51%) underwent reimplant. Patients who received EI were significantly older and more likely to be girls, white, and publicly insured than those who had UR. They were more likely to have been treated at hospitals that were larger, were teaching hospitals, or were located in larger metropolitan areas or the South rather than the Northeast. After adjusting for other covariates, the treating hospital was the most important factor predicting procedure choice.
The hospital at which a patient receives treatment is the single most important feature that drove procedure choice for children with primary VUR. The patient's age, gender, insurance status, and disease severity played a smaller, although significant, role.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiloculated hydrocephalus remains a challenging condition to treat in the pediatric hydrocephalic population. In a retrospective study, the authors reviewed their experience with navigated endoscopy to treat multiloculated hydrocephalus in children.
Between April 2004 and September 2008, navigated endoscopic procedures were performed in 16 children with multiloculated hydrocephalus (median age 8 months, mean age 16.1 +/- 23.3 months). In all patients preoperative MR imaging was used for planning entry sites and trajectories of the endoscopic approach for cyst perforation and catheter positioning. Intraoperatively, a rigid endoscope was tracked by the navigation system. For all children the total number of operative procedures, navigated endoscopic procedures, implanted ventricular catheters, and drained compartments were recorded. In addition, postoperative complications and radiological follow-up data were analyzed.
In 16 children, a total of 91 procedures were performed to treat multiloculated hydrocephalus, including 29 navigated endoscopic surgeries. Finally, 21 navigated procedures involved 1 ventricular catheter and 8 involved 2 catheters for CSF diversion via the shunt. The average number of drained compartments in a shunt was 3.6 +/- 1.7 (range 2-9 compartments). In 9 patients (56%) a navigated endoscopic procedure constituted the last procedure within the follow-up period. One additional surgery was necessary in 3 patients (19%) after navigated endoscopy, and in 4 patients (25%) 2 further procedures were necessary after navigated endoscopy. Serial follow-up MR imaging demonstrated evidence of sufficient CSF diversion in all patients.
Navigated endoscopic surgery is a safe and effective treatment option for multiloculated hydrocephalus. The combination of the endoscopic approach and neuronavigation further refines preoperative planning and intraoperative orientation. The aim of treatment is to drain as many compartments as possible and as soon as possible, thereby establishing sufficient CSF drainage with few ventricular catheters in single shunt systems. Close clinical and radiological follow-up is mandatory because multiple revisions are likely.
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