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Epidemiology of acute kidney injury: how big is the problem? Crit Care Med 36(4):S146-S151

Intensive Care Unit, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
Critical care medicine (Impact Factor: 6.15). 05/2008; 36(4 Suppl):S146-51. DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318168c590
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication that occurs frequently in hospitalized patients. In this article, we provide an overview of the literature on the epidemiology of AKI in hospitalized patients.
The overview is restricted to hospitalized patients, and most emphasis is put on intensive care unit patients.
The population incidence of less severe AKI and AKI treated with renal replacement therapy is approximately 2,000-3,000 and 200-300 per million population per year, respectively. These numbers are comparable with the estimates for severe sepsis and acute lung injury. Approximately 4-5% of general intensive care unit patients will be treated with renal replacement therapy, and up to two thirds of intensive care unit patients will develop AKI defined by the RIFLE classification. The incidence of AKI is increasing. Intensive care unit patients with AKI have a longer length of stay and therefore generate greater costs. In addition, AKI is associated with increased mortality, even after correction for covariates. Increasing RIFLE class is associated with increasing risk of in-hospital death. Patients with AKI who are treated with renal replacement therapy still have a mortality rate of 50-60%. Of surviving patients, 5-20% remain dialysis dependent at hospital discharge.
AKI has a high incidence, comparable with acute lung injury and severe sepsis, and is associated with higher hospital mortality.

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Available from: Eric Hoste, Feb 04, 2015
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    • "Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients [1] [2] [3] [4]. Despite progress in medical care, it is still associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay, costs, and postacute care resource utilization [4] [5]. "
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    • "Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important disorder and is associated with poor clinical outcomes and increased costs [1] [2] [3] [4]. The incidence in hospitalized patients of mild AKI and AKI treated with renal replacement therapy is ~ 2,000 – 3,000 and 200 – 300 per million populations per year, respectively, accounting for ~ 5 – 20% of all hospitalized patients [5] [6]. "
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    • "On the clinical side, prevention and therapy of AKI and CKD largely rely on empirical knowledge. With an increasing incidence of AKI in all acute care hospitalizations , risk assessment strategies and therapeutic options are limited (Chertow et al. 2005, Ali et al. 2007, Hoste & Schurgers 2008, Thakar et al. 2009, Thakar 2013). Translational approaches – although urgently warranted – are still scarce (Zarjou et al. 2012, Evans et al. 2013). "
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