Annual summary of vital statistics: 2006.
ABSTRACT US births increased 3% between 2005 and 2006 to 4,265,996, the largest number since 1961. The crude birth rate rose 1%, to 14.2 per 1000 population, and the general fertility rate increased 3%, to 68.5 per 1000 women 15 to 44 years. Births and birth rates increased among all race and Hispanic-origin groups. Teen childbearing rose 3% in 2006, to 41.9 per 1000 females aged 15 to 19 years, the first increase after 14 years of steady decline. Birth rates rose 2% to 4% for women aged 20 to 44; rates for the youngest (10-14 years) and oldest (45-49) women were unchanged. Childbearing by unmarried women increased steeply in 2006 and set new historic highs. The cesarean-delivery rate rose by 3% in 2006 to 31.1% of all births; this figure has been up 50% over the last decade. Preterm and low birth weight rates also increased for 2006 to 12.8% and 8.3%, respectively. The 2005 infant mortality rate was 6.89 infant deaths per 1000 live births, not statistically higher than the 2004 level. Non-Hispanic black newborns continued to be more than twice as likely as non-Hispanic white and Hispanic infants to die in the first year of life in 2004. For all gender and race groups combined, expectation of life at birth reached a record high of 77.9 years in 2005. Age-adjusted death rates in the United States continue to decline. The crude death rate for children aged 1 to 19 years decreased significantly between 2000 and 2005. Of the 10 leading causes of death for children in 2005, only the death rate for cerebrovascular disease was up slightly from 2000, whereas accident and chronic lower respiratory disease death rates decreased. A large proportion of childhood deaths, however, continue to occur as a result of preventable injuries.
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ABSTRACT: Considerable evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrated that maternal nutritional status is closely associated with placental, embryonic, fetal growth and development, and ultimately pregnancy outcomes. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the study of disorders of pregnancy using a metabolomic profiling approach. In this study, we presented an integrated comprehensive profiling approach to assess maternal nutritional status through measuring a wide variety of small-molecule metabolites and trace elements in serum of pregnant women. A total of 56 pregnant women with normal pregnancy outcomes were enrolled from Lvliang prefecture of Shanxi province, the area with the highest prevalence of congenital anomalies in China, and 40 pregnant women with normal pregnancies were recruited from Huairou county of Beijing city, the region representing a national average level. As compared with the national average level, these pregnant women from Lvliang region shown distinct metabolic phenotypic variations as revealed by the depleted serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12, lower concentrations of carbohydrates, lipids, Se, Zn, and Cu, as well as higher concentrations of amino acids, urea-cycle metabolites, Sr, Cd, and Pb. Our results offer an improved understanding of severe multifaceted malnutrition in the pregnant women from a population with a high prevalence of congenital anomalies, highlighting the potential of a panel of critical nutrients as markers for aiding the diagnosis, prevention, and intervention of pregnancy complications.Metabolomics 10/2011; 8(5):831-844. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrated that CSE induces oxidative stress and its consequences on isolated mitochondria obtained from lung, heart and brain which may provide insight into the role of CSE in human health and disease. The present study was carried out to further characterize and compare toxic effect of CSE extract on isolated mitochondria obtained from either a directly contacting tissue (i.e. skin) or a vital visceral tissue (i.e. liver).We obtained Rat liver and skin mitochondria by differential ultracentrifugation and incubated the isolated mitochondria with different concentrations (1, 10 and 100%) ofstandardizedcigarette smoke extract (CSE). Our results were similar to our previous study which discovered CSE toxicity mechanisms on isolated mitochondria obtained from lung, heart and brain with minor changes.CSE induced a significant rise in ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and mitochondrial swelling on isolated mitochondria obtained from both liver and skin. CSE induced Decrease in ATP concentration on isolated mitochondria obtained from both liver and skin did not include CSE lowest concentration (1%). Our findingsshowed that CSE-induced toxicity in liver and skin is due to disruptive effect on mitochondrial respiratory chain which canleads to cytochrome c release and apoptosis signaling.Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR) 01/2015; 14(1):271-7. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 143 OriginalArticle T he major cause of perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality is still from preterm labor and deli-very. Preterm birth before 24 weeks of gesta-tion may be defined as abortion in some centers. Preterm babies with lowest gestational age and birth weight were correlated with the highest risk of fetal death. 1,2 However, survival rates for preterm birth in tertiary cares are high because of the highest level of neonatal intensive care which provides mechanical ventilation and well-trained neonatologists. 3 Siriraj Hospital is the tertiary center where the com-plicated cases are referred for intensive care, therefore the preterm birth rate was high. The trend of preterm delivery in Siriraj Hospital has changed for 9 years. The situation of financial problems, social policy and hospital contract insurance were the major issues for the patients to make a decision of the place for delivery. The advanced technique of assisted reproduction, a high prevalence of complicated pregnancies and other related causes have resulted in the ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the preterm birth rate, neonatal birth weight and causes of early neonatal death at Siriraj Hospital over a 9-year period (2002-2010). Methods: The medical records of preterm birth, threatened preterm labor and neonatal birth weight at Siriraj Hospital from 2002 to 2010 were retrospectively collected and reviewed. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 13. Results: During a 9-year period, 2002-2010, the birth rate decreased steadily from 2002 to 2006, but increased suddenly from 2007 to 2010. The rate of preterm birth was increased steadily from 2004 to 2010 (9.44%-13.70%). The rate of threatened preterm labor was constantly between 6.0 and 8.9%. Among preterm births, low birth weight infants were mostly found except in the year 2003. Early neonatal death was mostly caused from fetal abnormality. The trend of neonatal death from prematurity had continuously declined and there was no early neonatal death from 2008 to 2010. Conclusion: Regarding this 9-year review, the preterm birth rate increased from 2007 to 2010 while premature babies mostly survived.