US births increased 3% between 2005 and 2006 to 4,265,996, the largest number since 1961. The crude birth rate rose 1%, to 14.2 per 1000 population, and the general fertility rate increased 3%, to 68.5 per 1000 women 15 to 44 years. Births and birth rates increased among all race and Hispanic-origin groups. Teen childbearing rose 3% in 2006, to 41.9 per 1000 females aged 15 to 19 years, the first increase after 14 years of steady decline. Birth rates rose 2% to 4% for women aged 20 to 44; rates for the youngest (10-14 years) and oldest (45-49) women were unchanged. Childbearing by unmarried women increased steeply in 2006 and set new historic highs. The cesarean-delivery rate rose by 3% in 2006 to 31.1% of all births; this figure has been up 50% over the last decade. Preterm and low birth weight rates also increased for 2006 to 12.8% and 8.3%, respectively. The 2005 infant mortality rate was 6.89 infant deaths per 1000 live births, not statistically higher than the 2004 level. Non-Hispanic black newborns continued to be more than twice as likely as non-Hispanic white and Hispanic infants to die in the first year of life in 2004. For all gender and race groups combined, expectation of life at birth reached a record high of 77.9 years in 2005. Age-adjusted death rates in the United States continue to decline. The crude death rate for children aged 1 to 19 years decreased significantly between 2000 and 2005. Of the 10 leading causes of death for children in 2005, only the death rate for cerebrovascular disease was up slightly from 2000, whereas accident and chronic lower respiratory disease death rates decreased. A large proportion of childhood deaths, however, continue to occur as a result of preventable injuries.
"Risk factors include multiparity, advanced maternal age, multifetal pregnancy, preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and African-American race.26) Because the multifetal pregnancy rate has risen rapidly over the last decades, the incidence of peripartum cardiomyopathy may have increased.27) "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart failure is a major clinical problem in developed countries with about half of heart failure patients exhibiting decreased left ventricular systolic function. The correct identification and prompt treatment of some specific etiologies can reverse heart failure, and recognition of myocardial recovery may avoid long-term therapy. However, the echocardiographic patterns of patients with a variety of etiologies of heart failure are similar, so the selective use of other imaging techniques is necessary for identification of specific etiologies. The role of repeat imaging in monitoring the therapeutic response is controversial, as is the cessation of medical therapy in patients demonstrating recovery.
Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound 06/2013; 21(2):45-55. DOI:10.4250/jcu.2013.21.2.45
"Tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse are all associated with poor maternal health but are also associated with adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes. As much as 13% of subfertility and delay in time to conception in the general population has been attributed to smoking  and smoking has also been associated with pregnancy complications, including low birth weight (LBW) and pregnancy loss [81, 82]. In an analysis of hospital discharge records linked to birth records from the state of Florida for 1998–2007, Aliyu et al.  found that cigarette use and maternal HIV status were independent predictors of LBW, preterm birth, and small for gestational age (SGA), with the greatest risks, approximately a two-fold increase, among mothers who were HIV positive and smoked during pregnancy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women living with HIV have fertility desires and intentions that are similar to those of uninfected women, and with advances in treatment most women can realistically plan to have and raise children to adulthood. Although HIV may have adverse effects on fertility, recent studies suggest that antiretroviral therapy may increase or restore fertility. Data indicate the increasing numbers of women living with HIV who are becoming pregnant, and that many pregnancies are unintended and contraception is underutilized, reflecting an unmet need for preconception care (PCC). In addition to the PCC appropriate for all women of reproductive age, women living with HIV require comprehensive, specialized care that addresses their unique needs. The goals of PCC for women living with HIV are to prevent unintended pregnancy, optimize maternal health prior to pregnancy, improve maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancy, prevent perinatal HIV transmission, and prevent HIV transmission to an HIV-uninfected sexual partner when trying to conceive. This paper discusses the rationale for preconception counseling and care in the setting of HIV and reviews current literature relevant to the content and considerations in providing PCC for women living with HIV, with a primary focus on well-resourced settings.
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 10/2012; 2012:604183. DOI:10.1155/2012/604183
"In the United States, the number of multiple pregnancies has exponentially increased in the last several decades. From 1980 to 2001, twin pregnancies rose by 77 percent (Martin et al, 2002) and in 2005, the twin birth rate in the US was 32.2 per 1000 live births (Martin et al, 2008). This increase is thought to be due to delayed childbearing and the expanded use of assisted reproductive techniques. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using published data, we sought to determine the amniocentesis-related loss rate in twin gestations.
We searched the PUBMED database using keywords "amniocentesis", "twin" and "twins" to identify articles evaluating genetic amniocentesis in twin gestations published from January 1970 to December 2010. Random effects models were used to pool procedure-related loss rates from included studies.
The definition of "loss" varied across the 17 studies identified (Table 1). The pooled procedure-related loss rate at < 24 weeks was 3.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-4.7) (Figure 2). Pooled loss rates at < 28 weeks (Figure 4) and to term (Figure 5) could not be calculated due to unacceptable heterogeneity of available data. Seven studies included a control (no amniocentesis) group and reported a pooled odds ratio for total pregnancy loss among cases of 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.7) (Figure 3). Only 1 study reported procedure-related loss rates by chorionicity (7.7% among monochorionics vs 1.4% among controls; p 0.02).
Analysis of published data demonstrated a pooled amniocentesis-related loss rate of 3.5% in twin gestations < 24 weeks. Pooled loss rates within other post-amniocentesis intervals or other gestational age windows and the impact of chorionicity on procedure-related loss rates cannot be determined from published data.
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