Article

Association of childhood autism spectrum disorders and loss of family income

Children's Institute, 271 N Goodman St, Suite D103, Rochester, NY 14607, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 05/2008; 121(4):e821-6. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-1594
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Parents of children with autism have significant out-of-pocket expenditures related to their child's care. The impact of having a child with autism on household income is not known.
The purpose of this work was to estimate the loss of household income associated with childhood autism using a nationally representative sample.
Parents of 11,684 children enrolled in kindergarten to eighth grade were surveyed by the National Household Education Survey-After School Programs and Activities in 2005. An autism spectrum disorder was defined as an affirmative response to the questions, "has a health professional told you that [child] has any of the following disabilities? 1) autism? 2) pervasive developmental disorder or PDD?" There were 131 children with autism spectrum disorder in the sample and 2775 children with other disabilities. We used ordinal logistic regression analyses to estimate the expected income of families of children with autism given their education level and demographic characteristics and compared the expected income with their reported income. RESULTS. Both having a child with autism spectrum disorder and having a child with other disabilities were associated with decreased odds of living in a higher income household after controlling for parental education, type of family, parental age, location of the household, and minority ethnicity. The average loss of annual income associated with having a child with autism spectrum disorder was $6200 or 14% of their reported income.
Childhood autism is associated with a substantial loss of annual household income. This likely places a significant burden on families in the face of additional out-of-pocket expenditures.

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    • "The costs that fall to families are made up of out-of-pocket costs such as additional non-funded treatments , informal care and lost productivity. These costs are difficult to estimate; one study in the United States found that childhood ASDs are associated with substantial loss of household income (Montes et al., 2008) and informal care costs were found to account for 5% of total costs of young adults with high functioning autism (Cidav et al., 2012). People with ASD, their families and the professionals responsible for their care and education seek to maximise their well-being within the resources that are available to them. "
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    • "The costs that fall to families are made up of out-of-pocket costs such as additional non-funded treatments , informal care and lost productivity. These costs are difficult to estimate; one study in the United States found that childhood ASDs are associated with substantial loss of household income (Montes et al., 2008) and informal care costs were found to account for 5% of total costs of young adults with high functioning autism (Cidav et al., 2012). People with ASD, their families and the professionals responsible for their care and education seek to maximise their well-being within the resources that are available to them. "
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition that requires specialised care. Knowledge of the costs of autism spectrum disorder, especially in comparison with other conditions, may be useful to galvanise policymakers and leverage investment in education and intervention to mitigate aspects of autism spectrum disorder that negatively impact individuals with the disorder and their families. This article describes the services and associated costs for four groups of individuals: adolescents with autistic disorder, adolescents with other autism spectrum disorders, adolescents with other special educational needs and typically developing adolescents using data from a large, well-characterised cohort assessed as part of the UK Special Needs and Autism Project at the age of 12 years. Average total costs per participant over 6 months were highest in the autistic disorder group (£11,029), followed by the special educational needs group (£9268), the broader autism spectrum disorder group (£8968) and the typically developing group (£2954). Specialised day or residential schooling accounted for the vast majority of costs. In regression analysis, lower age and lower adaptive functioning were associated with higher costs in the groups with an autism spectrum disorder. Sex, ethnicity, number of International Classification of Diseases (10th revision) symptoms, autism spectrum disorder symptom scores and levels of mental health difficulties were not associated with cost.
    Autism 06/2014; 19(5). DOI:10.1177/1362361314536626 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    • "The UK data showed that the annual costs for children with an ASD and a learning disability who are living in residential or foster placements are estimated to be £16,185–97,863 (aged 0–17) for those living long-term in hospitals (Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities 2007). The average loss of annual income associated with having a child with ASD was $6,200, or 14 % of the reported family income (Montes and Halterman 2008). The care burden for ASD was quite substantial. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to examine health care utilization and expenditure in the provision of medical care to understand the medical care burden of children with autism spectrum disorders based on recent literature reviews. This article reviews the recent literature in Medline, PubMed, and Google by using key terms that are relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and health care (medical care) utilization, medical care costs, and expenditures. I also hand-searched the reference lists of all of the included articles and recent narrative and systematic reviews related to medical care utilization and the costs of ASD to identify potentially relevant articles. The literature on medical care utilization and expenditures related to ASD highlights the fact that the disorder imposes high medical care burdens on families and on society. It is necessary to initiate appropriate, comprehensive, and accessible medical care services for individuals with ASD, particularly for those with comorbid conditions. Future studies should examine the impact of such improvements in the management of children with ASD on medical care utilization and costs.
    06/2014; 1(3). DOI:10.1007/s40489-014-0023-8
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