Epitope mapping of anti-human transferrin monoclonal antibodies: potential uses for transferrin-transferrin receptor interaction studies.
ABSTRACT Human transferrin (hTf) is an 80 kDa glycoprotein involved in iron transport from the absorption sites to the sites of storage and utilization. Additionally, transferrin also plays a relevant role as a bacteriostatic agent preventing uncontrolled bacterial growth in the host. In this work we describe a well-characterized Mabs panel in terms of precise epitope localization and estimate affinity for the two major hTf isoforms. We found at least four antigenic regions in the hTf molecule, narrowed down the interacting antigen residues within three of such regions, and located them on a molecular model of hTf. Two of the antigenic regions partially overlap with previously described transferrin-binding sites for both human receptor (antigenic region I: containing amino acid residues from Asp-69 to Asn-76 at the N-lobe) and bacterial receptors from two pathogenic species (antigenic region III: amino acid residues from Leu-665 to Ser-672 at the C-lobe). Hence, such monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) could be used as an additional tool for conformational studies and/or the characterization of the interaction between hTf and both types of receptor molecules.
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ABSTRACT: Serum transferrin reversibly binds iron in each of two lobes and delivers it to cells by a receptor-mediated, pH-dependent process. The binding and release of iron result in a large conformational change in which two subdomains in each lobe close or open with a rigid twisting motion around a hinge. We report the structure of human serum transferrin (hTF) lacking iron (apo-hTF), which was independently determined by two methods: 1) the crystal structure of recombinant non-glycosylated apo-hTF was solved at 2.7-A resolution using a multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing strategy, by substituting the nine methionines in hTF with selenomethionine and 2) the structure of glycosylated apo-hTF (isolated from serum) was determined to a resolution of 2.7A by molecular replacement using the human apo-N-lobe and the rabbit holo-C1-subdomain as search models. These two crystal structures are essentially identical. They represent the first published model for full-length human transferrin and reveal that, in contrast to family members (human lactoferrin and hen ovotransferrin), both lobes are almost equally open: 59.4 degrees and 49.5 degrees rotations are required to open the N- and C-lobes, respectively (compared with closed pig TF). Availability of this structure is critical to a complete understanding of the metal binding properties of each lobe of hTF; the apo-hTF structure suggests that differences in the hinge regions of the N- and C-lobes may influence the rates of iron binding and release. In addition, we evaluate potential interactions between apo-hTF and the human transferrin receptor.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2006; 281(34):24934-44. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The three-dimensional structure of diferric bovine lactoferrin (bLf) has been determined by X-ray crystallography in order to investigate the factors that influence iron binding and release by transferrins. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, using the coordinates of diferric human lactoferrin (hLf) as a search model, and was refined with data to 2.8 A resolution by simulated annealing (X-PLOR) and restrained least squares (TNT). The final model comprises 5310 protein atoms (residues 5 to 689), 124 carbohydrate atoms (from ten monosaccharide units, in three glycan chains), 2 Fe3+, 2 CO32- and 50 water molecules. This model gives an R-factor of 0.232 for 21440 reflections in the resolution range 30.0 to 2.8 A. The folding of the bLf molecule is essentially the same as that of hLf, but bLf differs in the extent of closure of the two domains of each lobe, and in the relative orientations of the two lobes. Differences in domain closure are attributed to amino acid changes in the interface, and differences in lobe orientations to slightly altered packing of two hydrophobic patches between the lobes. Changed interdomain interactions may explain the lesser iron affinity of bLf, compared with hLf, and two lysine residues behind the N-lobe iron site of bLf offer new insights into the "dilysine trigger" mechanism proposed for iron release by transferrins. The bLf structure is also notable for several well-defined oligosaccharide units which demonstrate the structural factors that stabilise carbohydrate structure. One glycan chain, attached to Asn545, appears to contribute to interdomain interactions and may modulate iron release from the C-lobe.Journal of Molecular Biology 12/1997; 274(2):222-36. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reliable kinetic estimates can be obtained from significantly less data than is commonly used today, particularly in the characterization of 1:1 interactions involving low molecular weight compounds and proteins. We have designed a rational and cost-effective strategy to determine kinetic constants using Biacore's surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors and show that the number of measurements necessary for accurate kinetic determinations can be greatly reduced, increasing sample throughput and saving sample material. Simulated and measured data for a range of possible 1:1 interactants were studied to find the minimum requirements of a data set for kinetic analysis. The results showed that kinetic constants in the region 10(4) < k(a) < 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) (association) and 10(-4) < k(d) < 10(-1) s(-1) (dissociation) could easily be determined in a 1:1 interaction model. Owing to the information-dense nature of Biacore data, only two sample concentrations were necessary to reliably determine the kinetics. A standard sample concentration series consisting of 10-fold dilutions between approximately 10 microM and approximately 1 nM consistently provided at least two concentrations with sufficient information about the interaction in this region. Determinations of the constants became increasingly unreliable outside this region. If the rate constants prove to be outside the specified region or the data fits poorly to the 1:1-MTL model, more experiments are required. General recommendations for the design of a cost-effective assay to deliver reliable kinetic measurements are provided.Journal of Molecular Recognition 01/2005; 18(4):307-17. · 3.01 Impact Factor