Neurodevelopmental trajectories of the human cerebral cortex.
ABSTRACT Understanding the organization of the cerebral cortex remains a central focus of neuroscience. Cortical maps have relied almost exclusively on the examination of postmortem tissue to construct structural, architectonic maps. These maps have invariably distinguished between areas with fewer discernable layers, which have a less complex overall pattern of lamination and lack an internal granular layer, and those with more complex laminar architecture. The former includes several agranular limbic areas, and the latter includes the homotypical and granular areas of association and sensory cortex. Here, we relate these traditional maps to developmental data from noninvasive neuroimaging. Changes in cortical thickness were determined in vivo from 764 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired longitudinally from 375 typically developing children and young adults. We find differing levels of complexity of cortical growth across the cerebrum, which align closely with established architectonic maps. Cortical regions with simple laminar architecture, including most limbic areas, predominantly show simpler growth trajectories. These areas have clearly identified homologues in all mammalian brains and thus likely evolved in early mammals. In contrast, polysensory and high-order association areas of cortex, the most complex areas in terms of their laminar architecture, also have the most complex developmental trajectories. Some of these areas are unique to, or dramatically expanded in primates, lending an evolutionary significance to the findings. Furthermore, by mapping a key characteristic of these development trajectories (the age of attaining peak cortical thickness) we document the dynamic, heterochronous maturation of the cerebral cortex through time lapse sequences ("movies").
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ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100B are involved in brain plasticity processes and their serum levels have been demonstrated to be altered in patients with psychoses. This study aimed to identify subgroups of patients with psychotic disorders across diagnostic boundaries that show a specific symptom profile or response to treatment with antipsychotics, by measuring serum levels of BDNF and S100B.Acta Neuropsychiatrica 08/2014; 26(4):223-9. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for maturation of neurobiological processes that underlie complex social and emotional behavior including Theory of Mind (ToM). While structural correlates of ToM are well described in adults, less is known about the anatomical regions subsuming these skills in the developing brain or the impact of cerebral insult on the acquisition and establishment of high-level social cognitive skills. The present study aimed to examine the differential influence of age-at-insult and brain pathology on ToM in a sample of children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children and adolescents with TBI (n=106) were categorized according to timing of brain insult: (i) Middle Childhood (5-9 years; n = 41); (ii) Late Childhood (10-11 years; n = 39); and (iii) Adolescence (12-15 years; n = 32) and group-matched for age, gender and socio-economic status (SES) to a typically developing (TD) control group (n=43). Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequence 2-8 weeks post-injury and were assessed on a battery of ToM tasks at 6- and 24-months after injury. Results showed that for adolescents with TBI, social cognitive dysfunction at 6- and 24-months post injury was associated with diffuse neuropathology and a greater number of lesions detected using SWI. In the late childhood TBI group we found a time-dependent emergence of social cognitive impairment, linked to diffuse neuropathology. The middle childhood TBI group demonstrated performance unrelated to SWI pathology and comparable to TD controls. Findings indicate that the full extent of social cognitive deficits may not be realized until the associated skills reach maturity. Evidence for brain structure-function relationships suggests that the integrity of an anatomically distributed network of brain regions and their connections is necessary for the acquisition and establishment of high-level social cognitive skills.Human Brain Mapping 02/2015; · 6.92 Impact Factor
- PLoS ONE 12/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor