Polysialylated NCAM represses E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in pancreatic tumor cells.
ABSTRACT Inhibition of cell-cell adhesion between epithelial cells represents an early step during tumor metastasis. Down-regulation or perturbation of E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions is an essential requirement in this process.
The interaction between polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and the E-cadherin adhesion complex was studied by coimmunoprecipitation assays. The presence of PSA-NCAM was correlated with tumor invasion by using cell-cell aggregation and cell migration assays. The importance of polysialic acid (PSA) in the interaction of NCAM with E-cadherin and inhibition of cell-cell adhesion was confirmed by enzymatic removal of PSA from NCAM and down-regulation of PSA-transferases by siRNA.
Expression of oncogenic K-Ras(V12) in pancreatic carcinoma cells resulted in induction of PSA-NCAM expression and reduced E-cadherin-mediated cellular adhesion. The association of PSA-NCAM with the E-cadherin adhesion complex correlated with decreased cell-cell aggregation and elevated cell migration of pancreatic carcinoma cells. Enzymatic removal of PSA from NCAM or reduction of polysialyltransferase expression led to reduced association between NCAM and E-cadherin and subsequently increased E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell aggregation and reduced cell migration.
Our data suggest the induction of PSA-NCAM by oncogenic K-Ras as a novel molecular mechanism by which E-cadherin-mediated cellular adhesion is reduced and dissemination of tumor cells is facilitated.
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ABSTRACT: Perineural invasion is a common path for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) metastasis, and it is highly correlated with postoperative recurrence and poor prognosis. It is often an early event in a disease that is commonly diagnosed in advanced stages, and thus it could offer a timely therapeutic and diagnostic target if better understood. This article systematically reviews the progress of CCA neural invasion-related molecules. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed databases for articles from January 1990 to December 2009, using the keywords "cholangiocarcinoma," "perineural invasion," "nerve growth factor"(NGF), "neural cell adhesion molecule" (NCAM), "matrix metalloproteinase"(MMP), "neurotransmitter," "acetylcholine" (Ach), and "transforming growth factor" (TGF)." Additional papers and book chapters were identified by a manual search of references from the key articles. From above we found that the molecules NGF, NCAM, MMP, Ach and TGF may have prognostic significance in, and offer clues to the mechanism of CCA neural invasion. Cholangiocarcinoma's increasing worldwide incidence is especially poignant in view of both the lacking effective therapies, and the fact that it is commonly diagnosed in advanced stages. As CCA neural invasion often appears early, more complete characterization of its molecular pathology could lead to the identification of targets for the diagnosis and therapy of this devastating malignancy.Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 03/2010; 29:24. · 2.15 Impact Factor
Article: Glycogene expression alterations associated with pancreatic cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition in complementary model systems.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ability to selectively detect and target cancer cells that have undergone an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may lead to improved methods to treat cancers such as pancreatic cancer. The remodeling of cellular glycosylation previously has been associated with cell differentiation and may represent a valuable class of molecular targets for EMT. As a first step toward investigating the nature of glycosylation alterations in EMT, we characterized the expression of glycan-related genes in three in-vitro model systems that each represented a complementary aspect of pancreatic cancer EMT. These models included: 1) TGFβ-induced EMT, which provided a look at the active transition between states; 2) a panel of 22 pancreatic cancer cell lines, which represented terminal differentiation states of either epithelial-like or mesenchymal-like; and 3) actively-migrating and stationary cells, which provided a look at the mechanism of migration. We analyzed expression data from a list of 587 genes involved in glycosylation (biosynthesis, sugar transport, glycan-binding, etc.) or EMT. Glycogenes were altered at a higher prevalence than all other genes in the first two models (p<0.05 and <0.005, respectively) but not in the migration model. Several functional themes were shared between the induced-EMT model and the cell line panel, including alterations to matrix components and proteoglycans, the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans; mannose receptor family members; initiation of O-glycosylation; and certain forms of sialylation. Protein-level changes were confirmed by Western blot for the mannose receptor MRC2 and the O-glycosylation enzyme GALNT3, and cell-surface sulfation changes were confirmed using Alcian Blue staining. Alterations to glycogenes are a major component of cancer EMT and are characterized by changes to matrix components, the sulfation of GAGs, mannose receptors, O-glycosylation, and specific sialylated structures. These results provide leads for targeting aggressive and drug resistant forms of pancreatic cancer cells.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9):e13002. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death and is characterized by early invasion and metastasis. The developmental program of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is of potential importance for this rapid tumor progression. During EMT, tumor cells lose their epithelial characteristics and gain properties of mesenchymal cells, such as enhanced motility and invasive features. This review will discuss recent findings pertinent to EMT in pancreatic carcinoma. Evidence for and molecular characteristics of EMT in pancreatic carcinoma will be outlined, as well as the connection of EMT to related topics, e.g., cancer stem cells and drug resistance.Cancers. 01/2010;