Article

Spatial separation and bidirectional trafficking of proteins using a multi-functional reporter

Promega Corporation 2800 Woods Hollow Road, Madison, WI 53711, USA.
BMC Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 2.84). 02/2008; 9:17. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2121-9-17
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The ability to specifically label proteins within living cells can provide information about their dynamics and function. To study a membrane protein, we fused a multi-functional reporter protein, HaloTag, to the extracellular domain of a truncated integrin.
Using the HaloTag technology, we could study the localization, trafficking and processing of an integrin-HaloTag fusion, which we showed had cellular dynamics consistent with native integrins. By labeling live cells with different fluorescent impermeable and permeable ligands, we showed spatial separation of plasma membrane and internal pools of the integrin-HaloTag fusion, and followed these protein pools over time to study bi-directional trafficking. In addition to combining the HaloTag reporter protein with different fluorophores, we also employed an affinity tag to achieve cell capture.
The HaloTag technology was used successfully to study expression, trafficking, spatial separation and real-time translocation of an integrin-HaloTag fusion, thereby demonstrating that this technology can be a powerful tool to investigate membrane protein biology in live cells.

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    • "As a versatile tool, the HaloTag technology has attracted much attention for a broad array of biomedical applications such as in vitro optical imaging [1] [2] [3], in vivo cell labeling/imaging [4] [5], protein purification/trafficking [6] [7], study of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions [8], analysis of protein stability [9], highthroughput assays [10], single molecule force spectroscopy [11], ribosome tagging [12], among many others [13]. The HaloTag technology involves two key components: the HaloTag protein and HaloTag ligands (HTLs). "
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    ABSTRACT: THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY IS TO EMPLOY THE HALOTAG TECHNOLOGY FOR POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET), WHICH INVOLVES TWO COMPONENTS: the HaloTag protein (a modified hydrolase which covalently binds to synthetic ligands) and HaloTag ligands (HTLs). 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were stably transfected to express HaloTag protein on the surface (termed as 4T1-HaloTag-ECS, ECS denotes extracellular surface). Two new HTLs were synthesized and termed NOTA-HTL2G-S and NOTA-HTL2G-L (2G indicates second generation, S stands for short, L stands for long, NOTA denotes 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N'N''-triacetic acid). Microscopy studies confirmed surface expression of HaloTag in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS cells, which specifically bind NOTA-HTL2G-S/L. Uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors (4.3 ± 0.5, 4.1± 0.2, 4.0 ± 0.2, 2.3 ± 0.1, and 2.2 ± 0.1 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) was significantly higher than that in the 4T1 tumors (3.0 ± 0.3, 3.0± 0.1, 3.0 ± 0.2, 2.0 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.3 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) at early time points. In comparison, (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-S did not demonstrate significant uptake in either 4T1-HaloTag-ECS or 4T1 tumors. Blocking studies and autoradiography of tumor lysates confirmed that (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L binds specifically to HaloTag protein in the 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors, corroborated by histology. HaloTag protein-specific targeting and PET imaging in vivo with (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L serves as a proof-of-principle for future non-invasive and sensitive tracking of HaloTag-transfected cells with PET, as well as many other studies of gene/protein/cell function in vivo.
    American Journal of Translational Research 01/2013; 5(3):291-302. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Keywords: Reporter gene, HaloTag, positron emission tomography (PET), cell tracking, cancer, molecular imaging HaloTag as a novel reporter gene for PET 393 Am J Transl Res 2011;3(4):392-403 nology has been investigated for a wide variety of applications such as in vitro optical imaging [13] [14] [15] [16], protein purification [17] [18] [19] [20], protein trafficking [21], study of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions [22], in vivo cell labeling [23], in vivo cancer imaging [24], analysis of protein stability [25], high-throughput assays [26], single molecule force spectroscopy [27], ribosome tagging [28] [29], among others. "
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    ABSTRACT: Among the many molecular imaging techniques, reporter gene imaging has been a dynamic area of research. The HaloTag protein is a modified haloalkane dehalogenase which was designed to covalently bind to synthetic ligands (i.e. the HaloTag ligands [HTL]). Covalent bond formation between the HaloTag protein and the chloroal-kane within the HTL occurs rapidly under physiological conditions, which is highly specific and essentially irreversible. Over the years, HaloTag technology has been investigated for various applications such as in vitro/in vivo imaging, protein purification/trafficking, high-throughput assays, among others. The goal of this study is to explore the use of the HaloTag protein as a novel reporter gene for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. By attaching a HaloTag -reactive chloroalkane to 1, 4, 7-triazacyclononane-N, N', N"-triacetic acid (NOTA) through hydrophilic linkers, the resulting NOTA-conjugated HTLs were labeled with (64)Cu and tested for PET imaging in living mice bearing 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors, which stably express the HaloTag protein on the cell surface. Significantly higher uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL-S (which contains a short hydrophilic linker) in the 4T1-HaloTag-ECS than the non-HaloTag-expressing 4T1 tumors was observed, which demonstrated the HaloTag specificity of (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL-S and warranted future investigation of the HaloTag protein as a PET reporter gene.
    American Journal of Translational Research 08/2011; 3(4):392-403. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to specifically label proteins with a wide range of optical properties and functionalities can help reveal information about protein functions and dynamics in living cells. Here, we describe a technology for covalent tethering of organic probes directly to a specially designed reporting protein expressed in live cells. The reporting protein can be used in a manner similar to green fluorescent protein, except that the fluorophore might be interchanged among a variety of standard dyes. This allows living cells to be imaged at different wavelengths without requiring changes to the underlying genetic constructs, and the colors can be rapidly switched to allow temporal analysis of protein fate. The stability of the bond permits imaging of live cells during long time periods, imaging of fixed cells, and multiplexing with different cell/protein analysis techniques. The dyes can also be exchanged with other functional molecules, such as biotin to serve as an affinity handle, or even solid supports for direct covalent immobilization. The technology complements existing methods and provides new options for cell imaging and protein analysis.
    Methods in Molecular Biology 02/2007; 356:195-208. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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