Improvement in eGFR in patients with chronic kidney disease attending a nephrology clinic.
ABSTRACT The adverse effects arising from late referral to a nephrologist of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are well known. Retrospectively we examined the initial characteristics of patients referred in various stages of CKD to our nephrology division and tried to identify potential baseline factors associated with subsequent changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Between September 1997 and June 2006 1,443 patients (909 male, 534 female) with CKD, with eGFRs ranging from 15 to 89 ml/min, were referred to our nephrology division and categorized using the National Kidney Foundation classification for CKD based on eGFR. The slope of eGFR change (ml/min-1/1.73/m2-1/year-1) was determined by linear regression analysis and the patients were divided into five groups: (1) significantly progressive slope (deterioration) (more negative than -5 ml/min/year); (2) mildly progressive slope (>-5 to <or=-1); (3) stable slope (>-1 to <or=+1); (4) mildly improved slope (>+1 to <or=+5), and (5) significantly improved slope (>or=+5).
At the first nephrology referral, 5.8% of the patients were on CKD stage 2 (eGFR: 90-60 ml/m), 46.7% on CKD stage 3 (eGFR: 59-30 ml/m), and 47.5% on CKD stage 4 (eGFR: 29-15 ml/m) CKD. Significantly improved slope was detected in 48.2% of CKD stage 2 patients, 29.3% of CKD stage 3 patients, and only 14.7% of CKD stage 4 patients (P<0.05). Being in stage 4 or stage 3 versus being in stage 2 significantly reduced the likelihood of an improved slope in logistic regression analysis whereas age, gender, presence of hypertension, and diabetes mellitus did not reach the level of significance.
Referral to a nephrology clinic can lead not only to arrest of progression of CKD but also to regression/improvement. Early referral is a positive predictive factor for improvement in eGFR, which emphasizes the importance of such referral. The previously held idea that, once established, CKD progresses invariably is not valid anymore.
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ABSTRACT: Three strategies can help delay chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression: early identification of patients, modification of risk factors, and implementation of the best interventions. Early identification of patients requires accurate screening tools. As serum creatinine is an unreliable marker of kidney dysfunction, clinicians should focus on the glomerular filtration rate or other markers of true kidney function. Clinicians should also be aware of other indicators of abnormal kidney function, such as anaemia, acidosis, and increases in parathyroid hormone level. Additionally, both clinicians and patients should be aware of the "non-modifiable" and "modifiable" risk factors for CKD. Non-modifiable risk factors include age, gender, race, diabetes, and genetic make-up, while modifiable risk factors include elevated blood pressure and blood glucose, proteinuria, anaemia, metabolic disturbances, and dyslipidaemia. Patients should be particularly aware of the risk factors common to both cardiac and kidney disease, such as hypertension, proteinuria, anaemia, and (possibly) dyslipidaemia and diabetes. A single centre study demonstrated that inclusion in a multidisciplinary CKD clinic programme produced the greatest increases in time to renal replacement therapy, haemoglobin levels, and epoetin treatment usage at initiation of dialysis in comparison with standard nephrology care or no care. Two years after starting dialysis, the number of deaths was lowest, and the number of patients who had received a transplant or were still on dialysis was highest, in the CKD clinic-treated group. These results confirm those of previous studies, which showed that timely referral to a multidisciplinary team for management prior to dialysis decreases the risk of adverse patient outcomes. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, collaborative, proactive approach increases the likelihood of early identification of CKD patients and risk factor modification. However, further evidence-based demonstrations of success are required, showing benefit to both patients and health care systems.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2001; 16 Suppl 7:57-60. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of chronic renal disease is increasing worldwide. Most chronic nephropathies lack a specific treatment and progress relentlessly to end-stage renal disease. However, research in animals and people has helped our understanding of the mechanisms of this progression and has indicated possible preventive methods. The notion of renoprotection is developing into a combined approach to renal diseases, the main measures being pharmacological control of blood pressure and reduction of proteinuria. Lowering of blood lipids, smoking cessation, and tight glucose control for diabetes also form part of the multimodal protocol for management of renal patients. With available treatments, dialysis can be postponed for many patients with chronic nephropathies, but the real goal has to be less dialysis-in other words remission of disease and regression of structural damage to the kidney. Experimental and clinical data lend support to the notion that less dialysis (and maybe none for some patients) is at least possible.The Lancet 06/2001; 357(9268):1601-8. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is now the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world, and is associated with a higher patient morbidity and mortality than other causes of renal failure, largely because of associated cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have elucidated the factors which influence its onset and progression. The St Vincent Declaration in 1994 proposed standards for the appropriate management of patients with diabetic nephropathy. We assessed whether referral to a nephrology clinic attempting to apply these standards influenced the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The results show a significant improvement in blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin and serum cholesterol following referral. There was a significant reduction in the rate of decline of renal function following referral in 39% of patients. With the possible exception of diabetic control there were no significant differences in the management of those that did and did not show improvement. The results show that with intensive out-patient clinic monitoring it is possible to improve the quality of patient care, and that even in established diabetic nephropathy it is possible to slow the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure.QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians 05/1999; 92(5):275-82. · 2.36 Impact Factor