The excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and angiogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs) participate in the growth and instability of atherosclerotic plaques. It is unclear whether Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is pro-or anti-atherogenic.
We examined the direct effect of JNK inhibitor (JNK-I) on the proliferation and formation of tubes by human coronary SMCs and human coronary ECs.
Culture medium from JNK-I-treated SMCs prevented ECs from forming tubes in an in vitro model of angiogenesis indirectly by reducing the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released from SMCs. In addition, JNK-I attenuated the expression of pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 in ECs. When added back to the medium of SMCs treated with JNK-I, VEGF blocked the inhibitory effect on the formation of tubes.
Our results indicate JNK-I to have a direct anti-atherogenic effect in SMCs and ECs.
"This effect is similar to hypoxia-induced proliferation of VSMC, where an autocrine proliferative action of VEGF has been described . In addition, it has been described that proinflammatory stimulation with angiotensin II and IL-1beta and activation of JNK induce VEGF release by VSMC [25, 26]. It might be speculated that proinflammatory adipokines present in CM are, therefore, responsible for the induction of VEGF. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue secrets adipokines and fatty acids, which may contribute to obesity-associated vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular risk. This study investigated which factors are responsible for the synergistic effect of adipokine and oleic acid- (OA-) induced proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Adipocyte-conditioned medium (CM) from human adipocytes induces proliferation of VSMC in correlation to its vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) content. CM increases VEGF-receptor (VEGF-R) 1 and 2 expression and VEGF secretion of VSMC, while OA only stimulates VEGF secretion. VEGF neutralization abrogates CM- and OA-induced proliferation and considerably reduces proliferation induced by CM and OA in combination. VEGF release is higher from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese subjects compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and VAT from lean controls. Furthermore, VEGF release from VAT correlates with its proliferative effect. Perivascular adipose tissue (PAT) from type 2 diabetic patients releases significantly higher amounts of VEGF and induces stronger proliferation of VSMC as compared to SAT and SAT/PAT of nondiabetics. In conclusion, VEGF is mediating CM-induced proliferation of VSMC. As this adipokine is released in high amounts from VAT of obese patients and PAT of diabetic patients, VEGF might link adipose tissue inflammation to increased VSMC proliferation.
Mediators of Inflammation 07/2013; 2013:982458. DOI:10.1155/2013/982458 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Islet transplantation success depends on the number and quality of islets transplanted. This study aimed at exploring the molecular mechanisms associated with cold pancreas preservation and their impact on islet cell survival and function.
Rat pancreata were stored in cold University of Wisconsin preservation solution for short (3 hr; control) or long (18 hr) cold ischemia times (CIT).
Pancreata exposed to long CIT yielded lower islet numbers and showed reduced cellular viability; isolated islets displayed higher levels of phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase (c-jun N-terminal Kinase and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-p38), and chemokine (C-C) ligand-3, and lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukins (IL)-9 and IL-10. Islets obtained from long-CIT pancreata were functionally impaired after transplantation. Differential proteomic expression in pancreatic tissue after CIT included increased eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1-alpha-1 (apoptosis related) and reduced Clade-B (serine protease inhibitor).
Our study indicates that cold ischemia stimulates inflammatory pathways (chemokine (c-c)ligand-3, phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal Kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase-p38, and eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1-alpha-1) and decreases repair/cytoprotective pathways (IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor, and Clade-B), all of which may negatively affect the quality and mass of islets obtained from a donor pancreas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathophysiologic responses in brain after stroke are highly complex. Thus far, a singular focus on saving neurons alone has not revealed any clinically effective neuroprotectants. To address this limitation, the concept of a neurovascular unit was developed. Within this conceptual framework, brain function and dysfunction are manifested at the level of cell-cell signaling between neuronal, glial and vascular elements. For stroke, coordinated responses at the neurovascular interface will mediate acute as well as chronic events in ischemic and hemorrhagic brain tissue. In this minireview, we briefly survey two representative examples of neurovascular responses in stroke. During the early acute phase of neurovascular injury, blood-brain barrier perturbations should predominate with key roles for various matrix proteases. During the delayed phase, brain angiogenesis may provide the critical neurovascular substrates for neuronal remodeling. In this minireview, we propose the hypothesis that the biphasic nature of neurovascular responses represents an endogenous attempt by damaged parenchyma to trigger brain angiogenesis and repair. This phenomenon may allow acute deleterious signals to transition into beneficial effects during stroke recovery. Understanding how neurovascular signals and substrates make the transition from initial injury to angiogenic recovery will be important if we are to find new therapeutic approaches for stroke.
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