Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor blocks angiogenesis by blocking VEGF secretion and an MMP pathway.
ABSTRACT The excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and angiogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs) participate in the growth and instability of atherosclerotic plaques. It is unclear whether Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is pro-or anti-atherogenic.
We examined the direct effect of JNK inhibitor (JNK-I) on the proliferation and formation of tubes by human coronary SMCs and human coronary ECs.
Culture medium from JNK-I-treated SMCs prevented ECs from forming tubes in an in vitro model of angiogenesis indirectly by reducing the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released from SMCs. In addition, JNK-I attenuated the expression of pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 in ECs. When added back to the medium of SMCs treated with JNK-I, VEGF blocked the inhibitory effect on the formation of tubes.
Our results indicate JNK-I to have a direct anti-atherogenic effect in SMCs and ECs.
- SourceAvailable from: Dymphna Margriet Ouwens[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue secrets adipokines and fatty acids, which may contribute to obesity-associated vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular risk. This study investigated which factors are responsible for the synergistic effect of adipokine and oleic acid- (OA-) induced proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Adipocyte-conditioned medium (CM) from human adipocytes induces proliferation of VSMC in correlation to its vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) content. CM increases VEGF-receptor (VEGF-R) 1 and 2 expression and VEGF secretion of VSMC, while OA only stimulates VEGF secretion. VEGF neutralization abrogates CM- and OA-induced proliferation and considerably reduces proliferation induced by CM and OA in combination. VEGF release is higher from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese subjects compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and VAT from lean controls. Furthermore, VEGF release from VAT correlates with its proliferative effect. Perivascular adipose tissue (PAT) from type 2 diabetic patients releases significantly higher amounts of VEGF and induces stronger proliferation of VSMC as compared to SAT and SAT/PAT of nondiabetics. In conclusion, VEGF is mediating CM-induced proliferation of VSMC. As this adipokine is released in high amounts from VAT of obese patients and PAT of diabetic patients, VEGF might link adipose tissue inflammation to increased VSMC proliferation.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:982458. · 2.42 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Traditional medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata is known to possess anti-tumor activity, and its potential active compound is the diterpenoid lactone andrographolide (ANGL). In this study, we have found that ANGL inhibits tumor growth in nude mice bearing xenografted Hep3B cancer cells, concomitant with a reduction in tumor vessel counts. ANGL inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-induced angiogenic responses in vitro and neoangiogenesis in vivo. We also found that ANGL inhibits VEGFA-induced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and its downstream targets such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). ANGL interferes with the binding of VEGFA to VEGFR2, but has no effect on VEGFR2 kinase activity in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that ANGL possesses anti-angiogenic activity which is mediated by preventing VEGFA-induced phosphorylation and activation of VEGFR2 and MAPKs. The present study indicates that ANGL can block tumor angiogenesis and therefore represents therapeutic potential for cancer treatment.Chemico-biological interactions 05/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to study the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced secretions of angiogenesis factors in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). ADSCs were cultured and ELISA assays were performed to quantify the vascular endothelial growth factor, the hepatocyte growth factor, and the stromal derived factor-1 in ADSC-conditioned medium before and after EGF treatments and after pharmacological inhibition of MAPKs with PD98059, SB203580, and SP600125. The tube formation assay was used to test the effects of EGF treated and inhibitor treated ADSCs on the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) tube formation. Liposuction was applied and ADSCs were cultured successfully. The ADSCs released a variety of angiogenic factors, with the EGF treatments enhancing secretions and promoting the HUVEC tube formation. The MAPK inhibitors PD98059 and SP600125 increased the paracrine to promote tubular formation, while the SB203580 played an opposite role. In conclusion, (1) the in vitro cultured ADSCs secrete various angiogenic factors and the EGF amplifies the secretion and can enhance the ADSCs on the HUVEC tube formation. (2) ERK1/2 and JNK pathway may be involved in the enhanced secretion capacity of ADSCs while the p38 pathway may exert an opposite effect.Cell biochemistry and biophysics 10/2013; 69(1). · 3.34 Impact Factor