Impact of preoperative screening for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by real-time polymerase chain reaction in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
ABSTRACT We report a significant reduction in the number of surgical site infections (SSIs) due to meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery after the introduction of preoperative screening using a same-day polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. This was an observational cohort study set in a cardiac surgery unit based in southwest England. We studied 1462 patients admitted for cardiac surgery between October 2004 and September 2006. The IDI MRSA PCR test was used preoperatively to screen 765 patients between October 2005 and September 2006. Patients identified as carriers were treated with nasal mupirocin ointment and topical triclosan for five days, with single-dose teicoplanin instead of flucloxacillin as perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. The rate of SSI following cardiac surgery in this group was compared to 697 patients who underwent surgery without screening between October 2004 and September 2005. After introduction of PCR screening, the overall rate of SSI fell from 3.30% to 2.22% with a significant reduction in the rate of MRSA infections (relative risk reduction: 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.056-0.95). PCR screening combined with suppression of MRSA at the time of cardiac surgery is feasible in routine clinical practice and is associated with a significant reduction in subsequent MRSA SSIs.
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ABSTRACT: Cluster randomised crossover trial with seven wards randomly allocated to intervention or control arm.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96310. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality (AHRQ) found that Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with up to 375,000 infections and 23,000 deaths in the United States. It is a major cause of surgical site infections, with a higher mortality and longer duration of care than Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. A multifactorial bundled approach is needed to control this epidemic, with single interventions unlikely to have a significant impact on attenuating MRSA infection rates. Active surveillance has been studied in a wide range of surgical patients, including surgical intensive care and non-intensive care units; cardiac, vascular, orthopedic, obstetric, head and neck cancer and gastrostomy patients. There is sufficient evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of surveillance and eradication prior to surgery to recommend its use on an expanded basis. Studies on MRSA surveillance in surgical patients that were published over the last 10 years were reviewed. In at least five of these studies, the MRSA colonization status of patients was reported to be a factor in preoperative antibiotic selection, with the modification of treatment regiments including the switching to vancomycin or teicoplanin in MRSA positive preoperative patients. Several authors also used decolonization protocols on all preoperative patients but used surveillance to determine the duration of the decolonization. Universal decolonization of all patients, regardless of MRSA status has been advocated as an alternative prevention protocol in which surveillance is not utilized. Concern exists regarding antimicrobial stewardship. The daily and universal use of intranasal antibiotics and/or antiseptic washes may encourage the promotion of bacterial resistance and provide a competitive advantage to other more lethal organisms. Decolonization protocols which indiscriminately neutralize all bacteria may not be the best approach. If a patient's microbiome is markedly challenged with antimicrobials, rebuilding it with replacement commensal bacteria may become a future therapy. Preoperative MRSA surveillance allows the selection of appropriate prophylactic antibiotics, the use of extended decolonization protocols in positive patients, and provides needed data for epidemiological studies.Antimicrobial resistance and infection control. 01/2014; 3:18.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: We evaluated the efficacy of pre-operative Staphylococcus aureus (SA) screening and chlorhexidine chest scrub in decreasing the incidence of empyema after major pulmonary resections. Methods: For two years, a strategy aimed at decreasing post-resection empyema was instituted. This entailed pre-operative screening for nasal SA and chlorhexidine chest scrub the night before surgery (Group Swab-Scrub, n=192). Patients screened positive for SA, methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive (MSSA), received 5 d of nasal mupirocin. Group Swab-Scrub was compared with patients two years earlier, who did not receive this pre-operative maneuver (Group Control, n=173). The extent of resection considered was lobectomy or greater. All patients received cefazolin (or clindamycin if allergic) prior to incision and 24 h postoperatively, except for patient in Group Swab-Scrub screening positive for MRSA, who received vancomycin. All patients had povidone-iodine skin preparation. Results: In Group Swab-Scrub, prevalence of nasal SA was 8.9% (17/192) two with MRSA and 15 with MSSA. There was no difference in patient demographics or operative characteristics between the Group Swab-Scrub and Group Control. There was also no difference in prolonged air-leak, empyema, wound infection, pneumonia, or mortality rates between the two groups. When stratifying for the extent of procedure, there was no difference in the incidence of empyema after lobectomy (Group Swab-Scrub, 3.9% [7/177] versus Group Control, 2.0% [3/151]; p=0.352) or pneumonectomy (Group Swab-Scrub, 6.7% [1/15] versus Group Control, 13.6% [3/22]; p=0.633). In both univariate and multivariable analysis, prolonged air-leak and pneumonectomy were significant risk factors for empyema. Conclusions: Preoperative screening for nasal SA and chlorhexidine chest scrub does not seem to decrease empyema rates after major pulmonary resection. Prolonged air-leak and pneumonectomy continue to be significant risk factors for developing empyema. The number of patients undergoing pneumonectomy in this study is small and further studies are needed for this patient population.Surgical Infections 01/2014; · 1.87 Impact Factor