Large chromosomal inversion correlated with spectinomycin resistance in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis S50.
ABSTRACT A large chromosomal inversion that confers resistance to high concentrations of the antibiotic spectinomycin in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis S50 was identified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The same type of inversion was identified in 4 independent experiments and in 4 different derivatives of strain S50, indicating the same position and the same mechanism of recombination as a response to antibiotic selective pressure in all derivatives. An analysis of ribosomal operons in strain S50 and mutants revealed that ribosomal operons are not endpoints of the recombination. Spectinomycin-resistant mutants appeared in a population of S50 derivatives at a high frequency of 2 x 10(-7). These spectinomycin-resistant mutants were not able to compete successfully with the wild-type strain during 25 generations (48 h) of co-culture in vitro, indicating that inversion had a significant fitness cost. Results demonstrate that as a mechanism of genome plasticity, inversion can be directly involved in one-step development of the adaptation to a high concentration of spectinomycin.
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ABSTRACT: Lactococcus lactis is a nonpathogenic AT-rich gram-positive bacterium closely related to the genus Streptococcus and is the most commonly used cheese starter. It is also the best-characterized lactic acid bacterium. We sequenced the genome of the laboratory strain IL1403, using a novel two-step strategy that comprises diagnostic sequencing of the entire genome and a shotgun polishing step. The genome contains 2,365,589 base pairs and encodes 2310 proteins, including 293 protein-coding genes belonging to six prophages and 43 insertion sequence (IS) elements. Nonrandom distribution of IS elements indicates that the chromosome of the sequenced strain may be a product of recent recombination between two closely related genomes. A complete set of late competence genes is present, indicating the ability of L. lactis to undergo DNA transformation. Genomic sequence revealed new possibilities for fermentation pathways and for aerobic respiration. It also indicated a horizontal transfer of genetic information from Lactococcus to gram-negative enteric bacteria of Salmonella-Escherichia group.Genome Research 06/2001; 11(5):731-53. · 14.40 Impact Factor
- Nucleic Acids Research 06/1987; 15(9):3930. · 8.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis S50 produces a lactococcin A-like bacteriocin named bacteriocin S50, and cell envelope-associated PI-type proteinase activity. This strain harbours 3 small size plasmids: pS6 (6.3 kb), pS7a (7.31 kb), and pS7b (7.27 kb). Plasmid curing using a combination of novobiocin treatment (10 microg.mL-1) and sublethal temperature (40 degrees C) resulted in a very low yield (0.17%) of Prt-, Bac-, Bacs derivatives, which retained all 3 small size resident plasmids. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA isolated from the strain S50 and cured derivatives in combination with restriction enzyme analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that S50 contains 2 additional large plasmids: pS140 (140 kb) and pS80 (80 kb). Conjugation experiments using strain S50 as a donor and various lactococcal recipients resulted in Prt+, Bac+, Bacr transconjugants. Analysis of these transconjugants strongly indicated that plasmid pS140 harbours the prt and bac genes encoding proteinase and bacteriocin production, and immunity to bacteriocin, since each Prt+, Bac+, Bacr tranconjugant contained pS140. Accordingly, none of the Prt-,Bac-, Bacs transconjugants contained this plasmid. pS140 was a self-transmissible conjugative plasmid regardless of the host lactococcal recipient used in the test. Frequency of conjugation of plasmid pS140 did not depend on either the donor or recipient strain.Canadian Journal of Microbiology 05/2005; 51(4):305-14. · 1.20 Impact Factor