Darunavir: pharmacokinetics and drug interactions.
ABSTRACT Darunavir (TMC114) is a new HIV protease inhibitor that has demonstrated substantial antiretroviral activity against wild-type HIV-1 virus and multidrug-resistant strains. Darunavir inhibits and is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) isoenzymes and is coadministered with low-dose ritonavir (darunavir/r); ritonavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A isoenzymes and pharmacologically enhances darunavir, resulting in increased plasma concentrations and allowing for a lower daily dose. The t1/2 (terminal elimination half-life) of darunavir is 15 h in the presence of ritonavir. An extensive darunavir/r drug-drug interaction programme has been undertaken, covering a wide range of therapeutic areas. Studies conducted in HIV-negative healthy volunteers and in HIV-infected patients show that the potential for interactions is well characterized and the interactions are manageable. For most drugs investigated, no dose adjustments of darunavir/r or the co-administered drug are required. This article reviews all the pharmacokinetic and drug-drug interaction studies conducted to date for darunavir/r, providing guidance on how to co-administer darunavir/r with many other antiretroviral or non-antiretroviral medications commonly used in HIV-infected individuals.
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ABSTRACT: The recent expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in resource-limited setting has raised concern about possible transmission of drug resistance (TDR).We assessed the prevalence of TDR over a 5-year period among treatment-naïve individuals in Southern Vietnam during rapid ART scale-up. Drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected patients in Ho Chi Minh City were evaluated prospectively from 2008 to 2012 by HIV-1 pol gene sequencing. TDR was defined according to the World Health Organization list for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in 2009. Pol sequence was obtained in 1,389 individuals (median age: 30 years, males: 52.3%). Risks of HIV-1 infection included heterosexual contact in 60.7%, injection drug use in 22.4% and both 5.2%. The majority was infected with CRF01_AE (97%) while 19 were infected with subtype B. Over the 5-year study period, TDR was detected in 58 individuals (4.18%): 28 (2.02%) against nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 19 (1.37%) against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and 15 (1.08%) against protease inhibitors (PIs), including 4 (0.29%) against both NRTIs and NNRTIs. The most common TDR was K103N (0.5%) for NNRTI. The annual prevalence of TDR remained low to moderate (2008: 2.4%, 2009: 5.2%, 2010: 5.48%, 2011: 2.72%, 2012: 5.36%) and there was no clear trend over time. There was no increase in TDR prevalence in Southern Vietnam during and after the 2008-2012 rapid scale up of ART.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 05/2014; DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000196 · 4.39 Impact Factor
Clinical Infectious Diseases 02/2014; 58(11). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu114 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ability to dose antiretroviral agents once daily simplifies the often complex therapeutic regimens required for the successful treatment of HIV infection. Thus, once-daily dosing can lead to improved patient adherence to medication and, consequently, sustained virological suppression and reduction in the risk of emergence of drug resistance. Several trials have evaluated once-daily darunavir/ritonavir in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARTEMIS and ODIN trials) or as monotherapy (MONET, MONOI and PROTEA trials) in HIV-1-infected adults. Data from ARTEMIS and ODIN demonstrate non-inferiority of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir against a comparator and, together with pharmacokinetic data, have established the suitability of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. The findings of ARTEMIS and ODIN have led to recent updates to treatment guidelines, whereby once-daily darunavir/ritonavir, given with other antiretrovirals, is now a preferred treatment option for antiretroviral-naive adult patients and a simplified treatment option for antiretroviral-experienced adults who have no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Once-daily dosing with darunavir/ritonavir is an option for treatment-naive and for treatment-experienced paediatric patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations based on the findings of the DIONE trial and ARIEL substudy. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety and tolerability of once-daily boosted darunavir. The feasibility of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a treatment approach for some patients is also discussed. Finally, data on a fixed-dose combination of 800/150 mg of darunavir/cobicistat once daily are presented, showing comparable darunavir bioavailability to that obtained with 800/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir once daily.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 06/2014; 69(10). DOI:10.1093/jac/dku193 · 5.44 Impact Factor