Darunavir: pharmacokinetics and drug interactions.
ABSTRACT Darunavir (TMC114) is a new HIV protease inhibitor that has demonstrated substantial antiretroviral activity against wild-type HIV-1 virus and multidrug-resistant strains. Darunavir inhibits and is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) isoenzymes and is coadministered with low-dose ritonavir (darunavir/r); ritonavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A isoenzymes and pharmacologically enhances darunavir, resulting in increased plasma concentrations and allowing for a lower daily dose. The t1/2 (terminal elimination half-life) of darunavir is 15 h in the presence of ritonavir. An extensive darunavir/r drug-drug interaction programme has been undertaken, covering a wide range of therapeutic areas. Studies conducted in HIV-negative healthy volunteers and in HIV-infected patients show that the potential for interactions is well characterized and the interactions are manageable. For most drugs investigated, no dose adjustments of darunavir/r or the co-administered drug are required. This article reviews all the pharmacokinetic and drug-drug interaction studies conducted to date for darunavir/r, providing guidance on how to co-administer darunavir/r with many other antiretroviral or non-antiretroviral medications commonly used in HIV-infected individuals.
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ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics of some HIV protease inhibitors are altered in patients with hepatic impairment. The TMC114-C134 study assessed the pharmacokinetics and safety of darunavir/ritonavir 600 mg/100 mg twice daily in HIV-negative subjects with hepatic impairment (defined according to Child-Pugh classification A [mild] or B [moderate]) compared with matched, HIV-negative, healthy subjects. All subjects received darunavir/ritonavir 600 mg/100 mg twice daily for 6 days with a morning dose on day 7. Pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained up to 72 hours post-dose for darunavir and 12 hours post-dose for ritonavir on day 7. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Darunavir pharmacokinetics in subjects with mild (n = 8) and moderate (n = 8) hepatic impairment were comparable to those in matched healthy control subjects (n = 16). In those with mild hepatic impairment, the least square mean ratios relative to healthy subjects for darunavir exposure (the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours) and for maximum and minimum plasma concentrations were 0.94 (90% CI 0.75, 1.17), 0.88 (90% CI 0.73, 1.07) and 0.83 (90% CI 0.63, 1.10), respectively. In those with moderate hepatic impairment, these values were 1.20 (90% CI 0.90, 1.60), 1.22 (90% CI 0.95, 1.56) and 1.27 (90% CI 0.87, 1.85), respectively. Ritonavir pharmacokinetics were comparable between healthy subjects and those with mild hepatic impairment, but mean exposure was 50% higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment. Darunavir/ritonavir was generally well tolerated, regardless of hepatic impairment. All adverse events were grade 1-2 in severity, except for a grade 3 increase in alanine aminotransferase reported in one subject with mild hepatic impairment. No adverse events led to discontinuation. The results of this study show that the pharmacokinetics of darunavir/ritonavir 600 mg/100 mg are not affected by mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that dose adjustments of darunavir/ritonavir are not required in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment.Clinical Pharmacokinetics 05/2010; 49(5):343-50. · 5.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The site of pharmacological activity of raltegravir is intracellular. Our aim was to determine the extent of raltegravir cellular penetration and whether raltegravir total plasma concentration (C(tot)) predicts cellular concentration (C(cell)). Open-label, prospective, pharmacokinetic study on HIV-infected patients on a stable raltegravir-containing regimen. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were simultaneously collected during a 12 h dosing interval after drug intake. C(tot) and C(cell) of raltegravir, darunavir, etravirine, maraviroc and ritonavir were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after protein precipitation. Longitudinal mixed effects analysis was applied to the C(cell)/C(tot) ratio. Ten HIV-infected patients were included. The geometric mean (GM) raltegravir total plasma maximum concentration (C(max)), minimum concentration (C(min)) and area under the time-concentration curve from 0-12 h (AUC(0-12)) were 1068 ng/mL, 51.1 ng/mL and 4171 ng·h/mL, respectively. GM raltegravir cellular C(max), C(min) and AUC(0-12) were 27.5 ng/mL, 2.9 ng/mL and 165 ng·h/mL, respectively. Raltegravir C(cell) corresponded to 5.3% of C(tot) measured simultaneously. Both concentrations fluctuate in parallel, with C(cell)/C(tot) ratios remaining fairly constant for each patient without a significant time-related trend over the dosing interval. The AUC(cell)/AUC(tot) GM ratios for raltegravir, darunavir and etravirine were 0.039, 0.14 and 1.55, respectively. Raltegravir C(cell) correlated with C(tot) (r = 0.86). Raltegravir penetration into cells is low overall (∼5% of plasma levels), with distinct raltegravir cellular penetration varying by as much as 15-fold between patients. The importance of this finding in the context of development of resistance to integrase inhibitors needs to be further investigated.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2011; 66(7):1573-81. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Higher CSF antiretroviral concentrations may be associated with better control of HIV replication and neurocognitive performance, but only the unbound fraction of antiretrovirals is available to inhibit HIV. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine total and unbound darunavir concentrations in CSF and compare findings with plasma concentrations as well as the wild-type HIV-1 90% inhibitory concentration (IC(90)). METHODS: Subjects with HIV infection were selected based on the use of darunavir-containing regimens with a twice-daily dosing schedule and availability of stored CSF and matched plasma. Total darunavir was measured by HPLC for plasma or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS) for CSF. Plasma unbound darunavir was measured by ultrafiltration and LC/MS/MS. CSF protein binding was determined by competitive binding exchange with radiolabelled darunavir. RESULTS: Twenty-nine matched CSF-plasma pairs were analysed and darunavir was detected in all CSF specimens (median total concentration 55.8 ng/mL), with a CSF unbound fraction of 93.5%. Median fractional penetrance was 1.4% of median total and 9.4% of median unbound plasma concentrations. Unbound darunavir concentrations in CSF exceeded the median IC(90) for wild-type HIV in all subjects by a median of 20.6-fold, despite the relatively low fractional penetrance. Total darunavir concentrations in CSF correlated with both total and unbound darunavir concentrations in plasma. CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir should contribute to the control of HIV replication in the CNS as a component of effective combination antiretroviral regimens.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11/2012; · 5.34 Impact Factor