Residual symptom recovery from major affective episodes in bipolar disorders and rapid episode relapse/recurrence
ABSTRACT Both bipolar disorder type I and type II are characterized by frequent affective episode relapse and/or recurrence. An increasingly important goal of therapy is reducing chronicity by preventing or delaying additional episodes.
To determine whether the continued presence of subsyndromal residual symptoms during recovery from major affective episodes in bipolar disorder is associated with significantly faster episode recurrence than asymptomatic recovery and whether this is the strongest correlate of early episode recurrence among 13 variables examined.
An ongoing prospective, naturalistic, and systematic 20-year follow-up investigation of mood disorders: the National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Depression Study.
Five academic tertiary care centers.
Two hundred twenty-three participants with bipolar disorder (type I or II) were followed up prospectively for a median of 17 years (mean, 14.1 [SD, 6.2] years).
Participants defined as recovered by Research Diagnostic Criteria from their index major depressive episode and/or mania were divided into residual vs asymptomatic recovery groups and were compared according to the time to their next major affective episodes.
Participants recovering with residual affective symptoms experienced subsequent major affective episodes more than 3 times faster than asymptomatic recoverers (hazard ratio, 3.36; 95% confidence interval, 2.25-4.98; P < .001). Recovery status was the strongest correlate of time to episode recurrence (P < .001), followed by a history of 3 or more affective episodes before intake (P = .007). No other variable examined was significantly associated with time to recurrence.
In bipolar disorder, residual symptoms after resolution of a major affective episode indicate that the individual is at significant risk for a rapid relapse and/or recurrence, suggesting that the illness is still active. Stable recovery in bipolar disorder is achieved only when asymptomatic status is achieved.
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition with recurring episodes that often lead to suffering, decreased functioning, and sick leave. Pharmacotherapy in the form of mood stabilizers is widely available, but does not eliminate the risk of a new depressive or (hypo)manic episode. One way to reduce the risk of future episodes is to combine pharmacological treatment with individual or group psychological interventions. However, access to such interventions is often limited due to a shortage of trained therapists. In unipolar depression there is now robust evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychological interventions, usually comprising psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Internet-based interventions for persons suffering from bipolar disorder could increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an Internet-based intervention, as well as its effect on residual depressive symptoms in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II (BP-II). The most important outcomes were depressive symptoms, treatment adherence, and whether the patient perceived the intervention as helpful. A total of 7 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II at a Swedish psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered the opportunity to participate. Of the 7 patients, 3 (43%) dropped out before treatment began, and 4 (57%) were treated by means of an online, Internet-based intervention based on CBT (iCBT). The intervention was primarily aimed at psychoeducation, treatment of residual depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and improved sleep. All patients had ongoing pharmacological treatment at recruitment and established contact with a psychiatrist. The duration of BP-II among the treated patients was between 6 and 31 years. A single-subject design was used and the results of the 4 participating patients were presented individually. Initiating treatment was perceived as too demanding under current life circumstances for 3 patients who consequently dropped out during baseline assessment. Self-ratings using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-rated (MADRS-S) showed symptom reduction in 3 (75%) of the 4 treated cases during iCBT. In the evaluation of the treatment, 2 patients reported that they perceived that the treatment had reduced symptoms a little, 1 that it had reduced symptoms very much, and 1 not at all. Treatment adherence (ie, module completion) was fairly high in 3 cases. In general, the modules were perceived as fairly helpful or very helpful by the patients. In one case, there was a reliable change-according to the Reliable Change Index-in self-rated symptoms of depression and perseverative thinking. The treatment seemed to have acceptable feasibility. The iCBT intervention could be an effective way to treat residual symptoms in some patients with bipolar disorder type II. This should be investigated in a larger study. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742351; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01742351 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6XnVpv4C3).01/2015; 4(2):e44. DOI:10.2196/resprot.3910
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ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Dysregulated affect is a hallmark feature of acute episodes of bipolar disorder (BD) and persists during inter-episode periods. Its contribution to course of illness is not yet known. The present report examines the prospective influence of inter-episode affect dysregulation on symptoms and functional impairment in BD. Methods Twenty-seven participants diagnosed with inter-episode bipolar I disorder completed daily measures of negative and positive affect for 49 days (±8 days) while they remained inter-episode. One month following this daily assessment period, symptom severity interviews and a measure of functional impairment were administered by telephone. Results More intense negative affect and positive affect during the inter-episode period were associated with higher depressive, but not manic, symptoms at the one-month follow-up assessment. More intense and unstable negative affect, and more unstable positive affect, during the inter-episode period were associated with greater impairment in home and work functioning at the follow-up assessment. All associations remained significant after controlling for concurrent symptom levels. Limitations The findings need to be confirmed in larger samples with longer follow-up periods. A more comprehensive assessment of functional impairment is also warranted. Conclusions The findings suggest that a persistent affective dysregulation between episodes of BD may be an important predictor of depression and functional impairment. Monitoring daily affect during inter-episode periods could allow for a more timely application of interventions that aim to prevent or reduce depressive symptoms and improve functioning for individuals with BD.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2014.07.005 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Life events play an important role in the onset and course of bipolar disorder. We will test the influence of life events on first and recurrent admissions in bipolar disorder and their interaction to test the kindling hypothesis. We collected information about life events and admissions across the life span in 51 bipolar patients. We constructed four models to explore the decay of life event effects on admissions. To test their interaction, we used the Andersen-Gill model. The relationship between life events and admissions was best described with a model in which the effects of life events gradually decayed by 25% per year. Both life event load and recurrent admissions significantly increased the risk of both first and subsequent admissions. No significant interaction between life event load and number of admissions was found. Life events increase the risk of both first and recurrent admissions in bipolar disorder. We found no significant interaction between life events and admissions, but the effect of life events on admissions decreases after the first admission which is in line with the kindling hypothesis.02/2015; 3(1):6. DOI:10.1186/s40345-015-0022-4