Enzymatic activity of lysosomal carboxypeptidase (cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1.
ABSTRACT Lysosomal carboxypeptidase, cathepsin A (protective protein, CathA), is a component of the lysosomal multienzyme complex along with beta-galactosidase (GAL) and sialidase Neu1, where it activates Neu1 and protects GAL and Neu1 against the rapid proteolytic degradation. On the cell surface, CathA, Neu1, and the enzymatically inactive splice variant of GAL form the elastin-binding protein complex. In humans, genetic defects of CathA cause galactosialidosis, a metabolic disease characterized by combined deficiency of CathA, GAL, and Neu1 and a lysosomal storage of sialylated glycoconjugates. However, several phenotypic features of galactosialidosis patients, including hypertension and cardiomyopathies, cannot be explained by the lysosomal storage. These observations suggest that CathA may be involved in hemodynamic functions that go beyond its protective activity in the lysosome.
We generated a gene-targeted mouse in which the active CathA was replaced with a mutant enzyme carrying a Ser190Ala substitution in the active site. These animals expressed physiological amounts of catalytically inactive CathA protein, capable of forming lysosomal multienzyme complex, and did not develop secondary deficiency of Neu1 and GAL. Conversely, the mice showed a reduced degradation rate of the vasoconstrictor peptide, endothelin-1, and significantly increased arterial blood pressure. CathA-deficient mice also displayed scarcity of elastic fibers in lungs, aortic adventitia, and skin.
Our results provide the first evidence that CathA acts in vivo as an endothelin-1-inactivating enzyme and strongly confirm a crucial role of this enzyme in effective elastic fiber formation.
Article: Emphysema in an adult with galactosialidosis linked to a defect in primary elastic fiber assembly.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Galactosialidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by loss of function of protective protein cathepsin A, which leads to secondary deficiencies of β-galactosidase and neuraminidase-1. Emphysema has not been previously reported as a possible complication of this disorder, but we now describe this condition in a 41-year-old, non-smoking male. Our patient did not display deficiency in α-1-antitrypsin, the most common cause of emphysema in non-smokers, which brings about disseminated elastolysis. We therefore hypothesized that loss of cathepsin A activity was responsible because of previously published evidence showing it is prerequisite for normal elastogenesis. We now present experimental evidence to support this theory by demonstrating impaired primary elastogenesis in cultures of dermal fibroblasts from our patient. The obtained data further endorse our previous finding that functional integrity of the cell surface-targeted molecular complex of cathepsin A, neuraminidase-1 and the elastin-binding protein (spliced variant of β-galactosidase) is prerequisite for the normal assembly of elastic fibers. Importantly, we also found that elastic fiber production was increased after exposure either to losartan, spironolactone, or dexamethasone. Of immediate clinical relevance, our data suggest that surviving patients with galactosialidosis should have periodic assessment of their pulmonary function. We also encourage further experimental exploration of therapeutic potential of the afore-mentioned elastogenesis-stimulating drugs for the alleviation of pathological processes in galactosialidosis that could be mechanistically linked to impaired deposition of elastic fibers.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2012; 106(1):99-103. · 3.19 Impact Factor