Synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells increase after intra-articular ligament injury in humans

Section of Cartilage Regeneration, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan.
Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (Impact Factor: 4.48). 09/2008; 47(8):1137-43. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/ken114
Source: PubMed


The existence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in SF was previously reported. However, the behaviour and properties of MSCs derived from SF have not been fully elucidated.
Human SFs were obtained from 19 knee joints with anterior cruciate ligament injury around the time of reconstruction surgery, and from three healthy volunteers. SF was plated, cultured and examined for colony-forming number, in vitro differentiation, surface epitopes and gene profiles. Also, rabbit synovium-MSCs were injected into the knee joint in a rabbit partial anterior cruciate ligament defect model, and the injected cells were traced.
SF-MSCs from IA ligament injury patients were 100 times more in number than those from healthy volunteers. Total colony number was positively correlated with post-injury period. No significant differences were observed among the cells derived from SF around the time of the surgery in relation to surface epitopes and differentiation potentials. Cluster analysis of gene profiles demonstrated that SF-MSCs were more similar to synovium MSCs than bone marrow MSCs. In rabbit experiments, the MSCs injected into the knee in which IA ligament was partially defective were observed more on the defected area than on the intact area of the ligament at 24 h.
We demonstrated that SF-MSCs, similar to synovium MSCs, increased in number after IA ligament injury and surgery without marked alteration of the properties.

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    • "SF is an easily accessible source of MSCs, which can be obtained during diagnosis or treatment of patients when clinicians confirm a diagnosis of RA without harming [10]. Moreover, the population of MSCs derived from SF (SF-MSCs) in the synovial cavity of arthritis patients is highly increased compared to that in healthy patients [11] [12] [13]. Hence, SF-MSCs are excellent candidates for autologous stem cell therapy in patients with inflamed or injured joints. "
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro differentiation and immunosuppressive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovial fluid (SF-MSCs) and bone marrow extract (BM-MSCs) in an isogenic background of minipigs were comparatively analyzed in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The proliferation capacity and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct3/4 and Sox2) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in SF-MSCs than in BM-MSCs. The differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into adipocytes, osteocytes and neurocytes was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of BM-MSCs, and the differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into chondrocytes was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of BM-MSCs. Systemic injection of BM- and SF-MSCs significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated the clinical symptoms of CIA mice, with SF-MSCs having significantly (P<0.05) higher clinical and histopathological recovery scores than BM-MSCs. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive properties of SF-MSCs in CIA mice were associated with increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and osteoclast-related sRANKL. In conclusion, SF-MSCs exhibited eminent pluripotency and differentiation capacity into chondrocytes, addition to substantial in vivo immunosuppressive capacity by elevating IL-10 and reducing IL-1β levels in CIA mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Cell Research 03/2015; 110(2). DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2015.03.015 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    • "Even so, they still assumed SFMSCs were possibly derived from dislodged SFs. In addition, Morito et al.[10] also assumed that SFMSCs in the knee joint may be derived from the synovium, because the morphology, gene expression profiles, and colony size of SFMSCs seemed to be more similar to those of SMMSCs than to those of BMSCs. Furthermore, joint injury is also likely to cause intima disruption and consequently trigger an increase in SFMSCs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) found in the synovial fluid (SFMSCs) of the tempromandibular joint (TMJ) remain poorly understood. During TMJ arthrocentesis, we discovered that synovial fluid collected from some patients with TMJ disorders contained not only SFMSCs but also synovium fragments (SFs). In this study, we attempted to characterize both the SFMSCs and SF-derived cells (SFCs) in order to further understand the role of MSCs in the synovial fluid of the TMJ. The SFs were membranous and translucent and consisted of several cell layers, indicating that their origin was only from the intima. SFCs were obtained by digestion of the SFs and subsequently expanded in vitro. SFMSCs were enriched by centrifugation of the synovial fluid and expanded in vitro. SFCs and SFMSCs displayed a similar fibroblast-like, spindle-shaped morphology, and we observed that some SFMSCs grew out of small tissue masses in culture. Flow cytometric analysis showed that both groups of cells expressed similar surface markers, including CD90, CD44, CD105, and CD73. However, both were negative for Stro-1, CD146, CD45, CD34, CD11b, CD19, and HLA-DR. Immunofluorescent staining showed that both SFs and SFMSCs expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Both SFCs and SFMSCs could be induced to differentiate down osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic lineages in vitro. Together, our results indicate that the intima is the most likely tissue origin of SFMSCs in the TMJ. Moreover, the SFs are composed of only intima and thus offer an improved source of synovium-derived MSCs compared to synovium specimens obtained by surgery, which contain both intima and subintima.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101896. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101896 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Such vessel injury and bleeding promotes the expression of cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, TGF-β, and HGF that consequently recruit MSCs. Inflammation can also increase the number of MSCs during the early healing phase; however, inflammation itself is not sufficient to maintain this increase in MSCs (Morito et al., 2008). Normal healthy SFMSCs are able to differentiate into chondrocytes and can be used for OA treatment (Dunn et al., 2009; Hong and Reddi, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SFMSCs) obtained from patients with degenerative arthropathy may serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For treatment of OA and RA patients, autologous transplantation of differentiated MSCs has several beneficial effects for cartilage regeneration including immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we induced chondrogenic differentiation of SFMSCs by inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA) with a small molecule and microRNA (miRNA). Chondrogenic differentiation was confirmed by PCR and immunocytochemistry using probes specific for aggrecan, the major cartilaginous proteoglycan gene. Absorbance of alcian blue stain to detect chondrogenic differentiation was increased in H-89 and/or miRNA-23btransfected cells. Furthermore, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 was decreased in treated cells. Therefore, differentiation of SFMSCs into chondrocytes through inhibition of PKA signaling may be a therapeutic option for OA or RA patients.
    Molecules and Cells 06/2014; 37(6). DOI:10.14348/molcells.2014.0023 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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