Oxyntomodulin suppresses appetite and reduces food intake in humans
ABSTRACT Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is released from the gut postprandially, in proportion to energy intake, and circulating levels of OXM are elevated in several conditions associated with anorexia. Central injection of OXM reduces food intake and weight gain in rodents, suggesting that OXM signals food ingestion to hypothalamic appetite-regulating circuits. We investigated the effect of iv OXM (3.0 pmol/kg.min) on appetite and food intake in 13 healthy subjects (body mass index, 22.5 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2)) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Infusion of OXM significantly reduced ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal (mean decrease, 19.3 +/- 5.6%; P < 0.01) and caused a significant reduction in scores for hunger. In addition, cumulative 12-h energy intake was significantly reduced by infusion of OXM (mean decrease, 11.3 +/- 6.2%; P < 0.05). OXM did not cause nausea or affect food palatability. Preprandial levels of the appetite-stimulatory hormone, ghrelin, were significantly suppressed by OXM (mean reduction, 44 +/- 10% of postprandial decrease; P < 0.0001). Elevated levels of endogenous OXM associated with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract may contribute to anorexia.
SourceAvailable from: Hans Eickhoff02/2015, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Francisco Castro e Sousa
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ABSTRACT: Eating process is an aggregate of complex and different forms of behavior. Its regulation is based on energy homeostasis and appetite control which includes two components: the homeostatic and the hedonistic control. Important signals in appetite regulation are gut-derived hormones. They are produced by enteroendocrine cells in response to nutrient and energy intake, and achieve their effects by influencing brain structures involved in food intake regulation. The key brain structure involved in this process is the hypothalamus. Gut hormones reach the hypothalamus from the circulation or by the vagal nerve via the nucleus of the solitary tract. Among gut peptides, ghrelin is the only orexigenic hormone, leading to an increase in food intake and body weight. All others, such as cholecystokinin, glucagon like peptide-1, oxyntomodulin, peptide tyrosine tyrosine or pancreatic polypeptide, are anorexigenic, leading to decrease in food intake. Also, gut-derived endocannabinoids exert orexigenic effect on appetite. Keeping in mind the growing problem of obesity, the crucial issue when considering gut derived peptides is to understand their mechanisms of acting because of potential role in clinical therapy, and discovering long-lasting gut peptides or their analogues, with no or minimal side effects.Acta Physiologica Hungarica 12/2014; 101(4):395-407. DOI:10.1556/APhysiol.101.2014.4.1 · 0.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal tract is the gateway for food in our body. Food ingestion and the ensuing digestive processes depend on the composition and amount of ingested nutrients. This complex process of nutrient digestion and absorption is effectively regulated by the enteroendocrine system. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) reside scattered throughout the intestinal epithelium. They express nutrient receptors that face the lumen and secrete peptide hormones in response to food. Besides regulating digestion, gastrointestinal endocrine cells are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety. The first part of this review describes the anatomical and biological characteristics of EECs and discusses the capability of their hormones to influence appetite, satiety, and body weight. In the second part, we then discuss the therapeutic potential of EECs in the treatment of obesity. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Hormone Research in Paediatrics 11/2014; 83(1). DOI:10.1159/000368898 · 1.71 Impact Factor