Dose-dependent thrombus resolution due to oral plaminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 inhibition with tiplaxtinin in a rat stenosis model of venous thrombosis.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate a small-molecule PAI-1 inhibitor (PAI-039; tiplaxtinin) in a rodent stenosis model of venous thrombosis in a two-phase experiment. Phase 1 determined the efficacy of tiplaxtinin against Lovenox (LOV), while phase 2 determined the dose-dependent efficacy. For both phases, drug treatment began 24 hours after surgically induced venous thrombosis and continued for four days. Phase 1 animals (n = 24) receiving low-dose (LD; 1 mg/kg oral gavage) PAI-1 inhibitor demonstrated a 52% decrease in thrombus weight (TW) versus controls (p < 0.05) with significant reductions in active plasma PAI-1, while the high-dose (HD; 10 mg/kg oral gavage) group demonstrated a 23% reduction in TW versus controls. Animals treated subcutaneously with LOV (3 mg/kg) showed a 39% decrease in TW versus controls (p < 0.05). Coagulation tests (aPTT and TCT) were significantly different in LOV compared to PAI-1 inhibitor groups. PAI-039 treatment was also associated with significantly increased return of inferior vena cava blood flow four days post-thrombosis versus controls (p < 0.05). In phase 2 (n = 30), TW was reduced from the 0.5 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg experimental groups, with the 10 mg/kg group demonstrating a paradoxical increase. The 5 mg/kg group showed statistically significant decreases in TW versus controls after four treatment days (p < 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate dose related effects of PAI-039 on increasing thrombus resolution and inferior vena cava blood flow without adverse effects on anti-coagulation in a rat stenosis model of venous thrombosis.
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ABSTRACT: Inactivators of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have been identified as possible treatments for a range of conditions, including atherosclerosis, venous thrombosis, and obesity. We describe the synthesis and inhibitory activity of a novel series of compounds based on bis-arylsulfonamide and aryl sulfonimide motifs that show potent and specific activity towards PAI-1. Inhibitors containing short linking units between the sulfonyl moieties and a 3,4-dihydroxy aryl substitution pattern showed the most potent inhibitory activity, and retained high specificity for PAI-1 over the structurally-related serpin anti-thrombin III (ATIII).Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 02/2010; 20(3):966-70. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cydonia Oblonga Miller (COM) is traditionally used in Uyghur medicine for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The present study is designed to explore the effects of COM extracts on models and markers of thrombosis and related biomarkers. 20, 40, 80mg/kg/day COM aqueous extracts and 5mg/kg/day aspirin, orally for 14 days were compared to untreated controls in mice on bleeding and clotting times, using the tail cutting and glass slide methods and for death rates in collagen-epinephrine pulmonary thrombosis, thrombolysis in vitro and euglobulin lysis time (ELT). In rats, common carotid artery FeCl3-induced thrombus and inferior vena cava thrombosis occlusion time, plasma concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandine F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) were measured. Compared to controls, COM extracts dose-dependently prolonged bleeding by 2.17, 2.78 and 3.63 times, vs. aspirin 2.58, and the clotting time by 1.44, 2.47 and 2.48 times, vs. aspirin 1.91. COM reduced pulmonary embolus mortality by 27, 40 and 53%, vs. 47% for aspirin. COM dose-dependently increased thrombolysis by 45, 55 and 63%, vs. 56% for aspirin, and shortened ELT to 71, 61 and 43%, vs. 43% for aspirin. In rats, venous occlusion time was prolonged. Arterial and venous thrombus weights were dose-dependently reduced in COM groups. TXB2 decreased and 6-keto-PGF1α increased with COM and aspirin, with an association between 6-keto-PGF1α/TXB2 and arterial or venous thrombus weight for all products, and for occlusion time with COM but not for aspirin. We confirm the experimental effects of COM on hemostasis and thrombosis. Further exploration of putative clinical effects appear justified.Journal of ethnopharmacology 04/2014; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, (PAI-1) the primary inhibitor of the tissue-type (tPA) and urokinase-type (uPA) plasminogen activators, has been implicated in a wide range of pathological processes, making it an attractive target for pharmacologic inhibition. Currently available small-molecule inhibitors of PAI-1 bind with relatively low affinity and do not inactivate PAI-1 in the presence of its cofactor, vitronectin. To search for novel PAI-1 inhibitors with improved potencies and new mechanisms of action, we screened a library selected to provide a range of biological activities and structural diversity. Five potential PAI-1 inhibitors were identified, and all were polyphenolic compounds including two related, naturally occurring plant polyphenols that were structurally similar to compounds previously shown to provide cardiovascular benefit in vivo. Unique second generation compounds were synthesized and characterized, and several showed IC(50) values for PAI-1 between 10 and 200 nm. This represents an enhanced potency of 10-1000-fold over previously reported PAI-1 inactivators. Inhibition of PAI-1 by these compounds was reversible, and their primary mechanism of action was to block the initial association of PAI-1 with a protease. Consistent with this mechanism and in contrast to previously described PAI-1 inactivators, these compounds inactivate PAI-1 in the presence of vitronectin. Two of the compounds showed efficacy in ex vivo plasma and one blocked PAI-1 activity in vivo in mice. These data describe a novel family of high affinity PAI-1-inactivating compounds with improved characteristics and in vivo efficacy, and suggest that the known cardiovascular benefits of dietary polyphenols may derive in part from their inactivation of PAI-1.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(11):7892-902. · 4.65 Impact Factor